StatCounter - Free Web Tracker and Counter

PCB Removal Technologies

Executive Summary

Polychlorinated biphenyls are a family of 209 compounds. They have been used as complex mixtures known as Aroclors for hundreds of industrial and commercial purposes, and a significant amount of them has been released to the environment.

The purpose of this review is to describe the major PCB contaminated groundwater treatment processes and evaluate the potential effectiveness of micro-organisms for biological treatment under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, technologies that have been extensively investigated in recent years. Chemical processes, such as advanced oxidation processes, photocatalysis, degradation, reductive dehalogenation in the presence of metals, supercritical water oxidation and hybrid methods, as well as physical processes like sorption on activated carbon and ultrafiltration gave very good results and high PCB removal, but they do not appear cost-effective. Biotechnological processes employing specialized micro-organisms have shown to be an effective alternative for cleaning up PCBs contaminated waters and soils, especially with combined aerobic-anaerobic processes.

Introduction

Due to their thermal and chemical stability, flame resistance, and dielectric properties, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been used in several industrial applications, such as hydraulic fluids, rubber plasticizers, adhesives, and electrical capacitors (3, 233). In the 1970–1980s, their persistence in the environment, toxicity and accumulation in the food chain had been demonstrated. However, about 2.1x108 kg of PCBs, one-third of the total quantity produced, has been released into water, sediments and soil (106, 135, 146, 157). These compounds are now considered among the most hazardous pollutants in the world (3, 248). Natural and industrial waters represent a particularly troublesome environmental problem, due to their large volume and low content of PCBs. Technological solutions for removal of these contaminants from the environment are still under study. A review of the literature concerning possible treatment processes for PCBs in groundwater and sludges with emphasis on biological treatment follows.

Physical Treatment

Adsorption

Activated Carbon (AC)

The most widely practiced treatment method for PCBs in aqueous wastes is activated carbon adsorption. It is suitable insofar as PCBs are very apolar pollutants (272). A study showed that in the presence of influent particulates, PCB removal was significantly better (99%) in a biological AC column compared to the 62% obtained in an otherwise identical granulated AC (GAC) column (119).

Other Adsorbents

Bentonite showed good results for the sorption of PCBs (156). The bentonite may function as a recyclable surfactant support for the adsorption and subsequent combustion of organic pollutants (334). Hydroxy-intercalated and several pillared bentonite showed high sorption capacity, although they seem to be less efficient than GAC (197).

A chemical activation of elutrilithe was developed, and showed a superior affinity and capacity compared to the classical existing sorbents (294).

Fly ash is found to be effective for the removal of PCBs from an aqueous solution. It could be an alternate adsorbent to commercially available carbon due to its low cost and good efficiency (222).

Filtration

Our own results confirmed high efficient removal of PCBs by both UF and RO membranes. Even with rough UF and MF membranes it seems to be possible to consistently achieve > 99.5% removal (241a).

Electrolytic Reduction

Electrochemical reduction has been applied to the dechlorination of PCBs using direct (99, 150, 200, 229, 274) or mediated (70, 71, 151) electrolysis. All PCBs can be dehalogenated via anaerobic electrolysis (274). Rapid and complete dechlorination of PCBs was possible with biphenyl or naphthalene as mediator in tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate / dimethylformamide solution (196). Commercial mixtures of PCBs (Aroclors) were dechlorinated to biphenyl by ultrasonically-assisted electro-reduction with and without soluble catalysts. Thus, it was shown that ultrasound increased the rate of electrolysis (284). The destruction principles, reaction mechanism and impact factors of electrochemical methods as well as advances of the research on these methods are reviewed by Yang (327).

Acoustic Cavitation

Sonochemical transformation and dechlorination of PCBs and other chlorinated chemicals in water were investigated (61). The sonolytic destruction of aqueous PCBs (2-, 4-, and 2,4,5-PCB) was reported by Zhang. He investigated kinetics and transformation pathways at multiple frequencies. Chlorine recovery as chloride ion was between 70 and 80% (340).

Radiation

Gamma Radiation

Gamma radiation did not affect degradation of a PCB in solution or on activated carbon (259). However, another investigation examined the gamma radiation induced degradation of PCBs (di-, tetra-, and deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners) in aqueous surfactant solutions. All PCB congeners were fully dechlorinated by ionizing radiation in micellar systems (256).

UV Radiation

The photodegradation of 22 individual PCB by irradiation with ultraviolet light in n-hexane solution, and their photodechlorination time were studied by Chang (64). Yao elucidated the complete photodechlorination pathways of 3,3',4,4'-TetraCB in alkaline 2-propanol (328, 329). He also investigated the photochemical behaviours of six non-ortho substituted PCB congeners in the same solvent (330). UV-radiation without catalyst applied to highly contaminated extraction waters for 240 hours showed good results (158). Photolysis of five PCB congeners was carried out in methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol. The addition of sodium hydroxide increased the rate of photolysis. 100% removal of PCBs in the mixture could be obtained in 90 minutes under optimized conditions (314).

Microwave and High Intensity Ultrasound

Under US or MW irradiation, rapid degradation of PCBs in polluted waters was achieved at neutral pH in the presence of a moderate excess of Fenton's reagent. US and MW processes may therefore increase the efficiency and speed of degradation by Fenton’s reagent (73).

Supercritical Water Oxidation

The SCWO process has a wide range of applications (208, 257), is environmentally sound and economically competitive (128, 48). Several detailed reviews of the SCWO process and the reaction pathways can be found (126, 127, 209, 254, 255, 257, 282, 283, 307). Modell first reported a destruction efficiency of over 99.99% for a transformer fluid containing PCBs (209). Then Oe (214) reportedly achieved near-complete decomposition of PCBs. Both used a bench scale unit. Hatakeda (138, 139) reported SCWO of the liquid 3-CB congener and a PCB mixture. In a study comparing efficiencies of H2O2 and O2 as oxidants for the destruction of 3-chlorobiphenyl, over 99% of PCBs were decomposed (139). A similar study using H2O2 claimed more than 99.9% PCB decomposition (138). The kinetic oxidation of Aroclor 1248 appeared to be independent of the oxygen concentration (17). However, a better degradation of monochlorobiphenyl in the presence of methanol was observed with oxygen present (19). Dechlorination of a nonachloro biphenyl congener with ZVI in water under high temperature and pressure was investigated and achieved almost 70% of PCB degradation after two hours (87). Recently, high degrees of decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons by SCWO using sodium nitrate and nitrite salts as oxidants has been achieved (> 99.95%) in batch and flow reactor systems (178). Lastly, the development of a new practical reactor for handling high concentration PCB streams that can include dioxins is reported by Kawasaki. Trichlorobiphenyl could be decomposed with a reported efficiency of over 99.9998% in the effluent (160).

Chemical Treatment

Reduction with Metals

Microscale ZVI filings effectively dechlorinate many halogenated hydrocarbon compounds (96, 123, 194, 297). Unfortunately, it only dechlorinates Aroclor mixtures at elevated temperatures (67, 321, 322), but not at ambient conditions (301, 308). Palladisation of the ZVI enables it to rapidly dechlorinate PCBs in sediments and water (308, 131), but this dramatically increases the cost of the process. Nanoscale ZVI and nanoscale bimetallic Pd/Fe0 and Ni/ Fe0 have been investigated as remedial agents for chlorinated organic compounds (235, 258, 341, 301). Lowry demonstrates that nanoscale ZVI dechlorinates PCBs to less-chlorinated products under ambient conditions, and that is much more sustainable than palladised microscale ZVI (180). It has been shown that ZVI efficacy is greatest at neutral to acidic pH and a high specific surface area of iron (44). Several studies showed very fast and efficient, complete dechlorination of the PCBs present in Aroclor 1221, 1254 and 1260 by a Pd/Fe bimetallic system, often at ambient conditions (91, 131, 159, 163, 301). However, Pd/Zn showed higher dechlorination activity than Pd/Fe (163), and the preparation of Pd/Mg was found to be much simpler and faster (91). Quantitative and rapid dechlorinations of Aroclor 1221 and 1260 have been demonstrated using the Pd/Mg bimetallic (91, 93, 133). A two-stage dechlorination reaction was trialled: Pd/Fe reduced the higher chlorinated congeners; then Pd/Mg rapidly converted the remaining PCB to biphenyl (94). Moreover, reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated aromatic compounds, including coplanar PCBs, by metallic calcium under mild conditions was successful in 24 hours (206, 207).

Fenton’s Reagent

Hydroxyl radicals (OH'), generated with Fenton's reagent, (H2O2 + Fe(II)) rapidly oxidized PCBs in aqueous solutions (253, 274). Aqueous-phase oxidation by OH' may be an important PCB removal mechanism in surface waters under certain conditions (77).

Combination of Physical and Chemical Processes

UV/ H2O2 or Ozone

Several studies have claimed that H2O2 was able to significantly improve the initial reaction rates of photocatalysis of a variety of organic compounds (129, 201, 230, 277-279). Since the late 1960s, many studies have indicated that the UV/ H2O2 process is able to oxidize a wide variety of organic pollutants in aqueous solutions (187, 273). Vollmuth showed that it was more efficient to destroy PCBs by UV/ozone treatment than UV or ozone alone (>90% of removal) (299). pH was also shown to have no influence on the UV/ozone treatment of seepage water. Laboratory and pilot plant scale conditions for UV oxidation of PCBs in the presence of H2O2 were studied by Kastanek (157) and showed good results.

TiO2 /Photocatalysis

TiO2 photocatalytic degradation has been demonstrated to be able to effectively degrade various organic contaminants (205, 231). Hong showed that 2-Chlorobiphenyl, can be completely mineralized in irradiated TiO2 aqueous suspensions (143). He also studied the role of O2 in this reaction (304) The catalytic decomposition of PCBs promoted by sunlight in an aqueous solution is reported by Zhang (338). Almost 80% of the total PCBs were destroyed after 4 hours of irradiation. A similar study has been investigated with a 2-chlorobiphenyl and Aroclor mixture (1221, 1016, 1248, 1254, and 1260) and water from the PCB contaminated St. Lawrence river (144). Degradation rates were found to be proportional to the concentration of TiO2, and higher in acidic media. The most highly chlorinated PCBs tended to decompose last (144, 338). Ollis (226) concluded that photocatalysis was economically comparable to activated carbon systems and much cheaper than UV-ozone oxidation systems. UV / TiO2 / Oxidant Negative effects on TiO2 photocatalysis at high H2O2 concentration and total inhibition at any H2O2 concentration have been reported (187, 278, 279). The rate-enhancing effect of inorganic oxidants in the UV / TiO2 / oxidant system was confirmed by many investigators (129, 190, 230). Grätzel (129) and Pelizzetti (230) reported that H2O2, IO4- and S2O82- had significant rate-enhancing effects on TiO2 photocatalysis of organic compounds. Wang studied the effect of different concentrations of these oxidants on photocatalysis of 2-Chlorobiphenyl in aqueous TiO2 suspensions (303). It was found that PCBs were degraded effectively by the use of a suspension of TiO2 particles in a solution of ferric chloride, H2O2 and alcohols under irradiation at 253.7 nm (195).

Fenton / UV

A photo-assisted Fenton-type reaction degraded Aroclor 1242 in acidified water at 66°C and up to 85% PCB removal and dechlorination were readily obtained (234). The reaction of three PCB congeners in a photo-Fenton system at pH 3 was followed by David. He showed that sorption on particulate matter resulted in slower transformation rates (79). Research into the oxidation of 4-CBP and 4,4'-CBP in aqueous solution seems to show that the photo-Fenton process is superior to either a simple Fenton or UV / TiO2 process (171). Kastanek studied the possibility of decomposition of PCBs using a Fenton reaction enhanced by UV radiation in combination with an adsorption step. He achieved a relatively high destruction of PCB in the UV/Ox system with real wastewater (157, 158). Recently, he demonstrated a 99% removal of PCBs by active radicals in 45 h(159). SWO/ H2O2 The dechlorination of a tetrachlorobiphenyl congener in supercritical water and methanol using H2O2 as the oxidant suggests the possibility of treating Aroclor 1248 in the same way (18).

Ultrasound Waves, Electrochemistry and Fenton’s Reagent

A new method for removal of hydrophilic chloro-organic pollutants in effluent water was developed, using a sono-electrochemical process treatment. The efficiency of this process is tentatively much higher than the reference degradation methods, and the time required for full degradation is considerably shorter (323).

GAC and UV / Ox

Kastenek concludes that due to disproportionate times of reaction, the use of catalyst and/or combination of UV/Ox and AC filtration is impractical (157, 158). A full procedure including both adsorption on activated bentonite and on GAC was however studied at laboratory and pilot plant scale and achieved considerable reduction of PCB concentration.

GAC and Ultrafiltration

Performance trials carried out at groundwater treatment plants seem to indicate that ultrafiltration followed by GAC filtration would give the highest level of PCB removal (241b).

Biological Treatment

Ex-Situ Treatment

Aerobic Oxidative Degradation

In general, PCBs with at most three chlorines are broken down by the catabolic “biphenyl pathway” (212). In most cases the degradability decreased as the number of chlorines increased (212). Two organisms, Burkholderia cepacia LB400 and Ralstonia eutropha H850 are among the best naturally occurring PCB-degrading organisms that have been discovered, with an exceptional range of PCBs degraded (211, 216, 283). Introducing additional genes into strain H850 made it capable of utilising Aroclor 1221 and 1242 as its sole carbon and energy sources for growth (310). Rein investigated the potential of strain LB400 and the genetically modified P. fluorescens strains F113pcb and F113L::1180 to metabolise PCBs (242). Ralstonia sp. SA-5 and Pseudomonas sp. SA-6 recently showed a high degradation capacity for Aroclor 1242 in the presence of biphenyl, and are among the most versatile PCB-metabolizing organisms yet reported (10). A marine bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. CH07 was capable of degrading a variety of highly chlorinated congeners of PCBs (80). Kim has isolated bacterial strains capable of aerobic growth on ortho-substituted dichlorobiphenyls (162). Some studies confirmed that chlorobenzoate (CBA) inhibits growth and PCB biodegradation potentials of several PCB-degrading bacteria, including strain LB400 (11, 191). Laboratory scale aerobic biofilm bioreactors were recently set up and tested for the continuous treatment of low-chlorinated PCB contaminated water (124), and proved to be promising. Pilot experiments were performed in a two step process, using a mixture of indigenous soil bacteria, in a ground water decontamination unit (155). Aerobic biodegradation of PCBs in groundwater by selected bacterial co-cultures was tested by Kastanek in pilot-plant scale experiments, in a slurry of bentonite with adsorbed PCBs (157). At a wide range of PCB concentrations, the degree of direct aerobic degradation of Arochlor 1221, 1242, 1248, 1254, 1260 varied from 60–100%, 50–95%, 40–60%, 30–50%, and 0-30%, respectively (32, 57, 166, 167).

Anaerobic Reductive Dechlorination

Anaerobic reductive dechlorination can attack a large array of highly chlorinated PCBs (137). It decreases their toxicity (32, 56, 239) and increases their degradability (309). It converts them into less-chlorinated congeners (36, 214, 237, 239, 240),more amenable to aerobic degradation (26, 27, 69, 117, 275). This occurs under both methanogenic (331) and sulphate-reducing conditions (14, 342). The rate and extent of dechlorination tends to decrease with increasing degree of chlorination (244). In the past few years, two anaerobic PCB-dechlorinating microorganisms, strains DF-1 (199, 204, 319) and o-17 (75, 177) have been shown to have growth linked to the reductive dechlorination of PCBs (74, 203, 236, 305). High rates of dechlorination of some congeners of PCB were found with strain SF1 (97) and in a pure culture of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 (109). Mixed bacterial cultures and individual strains are able to efficiently dechlorinate Arochlor 1260 in a liquid medium, in the presence of easily accessible organic carbon and H2 (2, 39). Brown (53, 54, 55) and Quensen (237) confirmed microbial PCB dechlorination in the laboratory using anaerobic sediment slurries from the Hudson River. Since then, anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs has been reported from many other laboratories (32-34, 42, 165, 225, 270, 271, 313, 315-317, 331, 332). Evidence suggests that they may be completely dechlorinated to biphenyl (219, 243, 312). Natarajan (219) reported that a methanogenic consortium developed in a granular form exhibited complete dechlorination of 23456-CB to biphenyl. Several studies demonstrated efficient and sustainable PCB dechlorination activity without the addition of sediment (39, 40, 74, 137, 318). A study showed that supplementation with adequate amounts of cobalt promotes the reductive meta-dechlorination of PCBs (172). The main factors influencing PCB dechlorination (temperature, pH, H2, carbon sources, electron acceptor) are detailed by Wiegel (309).

Combination Anaerobic–Aerobic Transformation

It has been suggested that a combination of anaerobic dehalogenation and aerobic degradation of PCBs might provide an effective degradation process (2, 95, 285) it is claimed that this can provide nearly complete mineralization of PCBs (291). Fish and Principe (114) demonstrated that Aroclor 1242 was biologically transformed by both aerobic degradation and anaerobic dechlorination in test tube microcosms. Maltseva studied the aerobic degradation of eight PCB congeners which were predominantly anaerobic dechlorination products from Aroclor 1242 (188). Tartakovsky studied the degradation of Aroclor 1242 in granular biofilm reactors, supplemented by an aerobic biphenyl degradation step, and suggested that a near-complete mineralization of Aroclor can be achieved in a single-stage anaerobic-aerobic system (281). The recent isolation of aerobes capable of growth on diortho-substituted trichlorobiphenyls offers the hope for development of effective sequential anaerobic–aerobic bioremediation strategies (12).

In Situ Treatment

Aerobic Conditions

Several studies performed in soil microcosms spiked with defined mixtures of PCBs have shown that PCBs can be extensively biodegraded in soils, especially when they are supplemented with biphenyl and O2 and inoculated with PCB- and/or CBA-degrading bacteria (21, 49, 116, 134, 140, 141). Studies performed on actual site PCB contaminated soils have confirmed this finding (8, 95, 103, 113, 115, 136, 176, 245). Rhodococci, such as strain RHA1, are known to be effective PCB degraders surviving well in soil (179, 192, 260). Many studies have centred on LB400, which oxidises a wide range of PCBs (26, 28, 121). A study reports the isolation of three aerobic strains from Nigerian polluted soils, which were able to grow on all monoCBs and on a wide range of diCBs (68 to 100% removal) (9). Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain IR08 was proved to be a dichlorobiphenyl-mineralizing strain (198). In Zadar, Croatia, 60 % of a PCB50 mixture was reduced after a two-week cultivation of mixed cultures TSZ7 and AIR1 (232).

Bioaugmentation

In a number of works, specific microflora were inoculated into soil, usually in the presence of biphenyl or other inducers (295). The following bacteria showed positive results: A mixture of the strain Pseudomonas testosteroni B-356 and a surfactant-producing, hydrocarbon-degrading strain (276) A mixture of gfp-transformed strains (Pseudomonas sp. Cam-1-gfp1 and Sag-50G-gfp1) (13) A strain of Janibacter sp., in the presence of yeast extract (264) Biphenyl-degrading strains of Arthrobacter sp. B1B and H850 together with carvone, salicylic acid, and surfactant sorbitol trioleate (267) Pseudomonas fluorescens HK 44 bearing a naphthalene degradation plasmid and the bioluminescence gene lux (15) Enzyveba, used in soils historically contaminated by Arochlor 1248 and 1260 (288) Incorporation of CBA degraders can greatly enhance the mineralization of PCBs (101, 166, 290). Fava indicates that it is possible to significantly bioremediate a highly PCB contaminated soil in slurry-phase conditions by inoculating it with exogenous PCB- and CBA degrading bacteria in the presence of biphenyl and O2 (104).

Biostimulation

A neutral pH, an optimal level of salts, an adequate supply of macro- and microelements, and additional introduction of mineral sources of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium noticeably accelerated PCB biodegradation in some soils and sediments (107). Inducers of aerobic degradation by PCB degraders in soil and other matrices were most often biphenyl (45), mono-chlorobiphenyls and more degradable brominated PCB analogues or CBA (2-4, 22, 116, 118, 233). Clark (68) described the enhanced co-metabolism of Aroclor 1242 in the presence of acetate. Moreover, it appeared that maltotriose fatty acid monoesters could significantly increase the bioavailability, and thereby accelerate the biodegradation of highly chlorinated PCBs (112). Addition of non-analogous compounds such as inorganic nutrients (ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate), biphenyl and O2 enhanced PCB biodegradation.

Anaerobic Conditions

Reductive dechlorination of PCBs by anaerobic micro-organisms has been demonstrated to occur in the laboratory and in situ (6, 7, 14, 32, 33, 54, 55, 237). Anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs has been documented for several contaminated sites (33, 55, 78, 100, 147, 148, 227, 237). Despite a significant potential for dechlorination (100, 164), few studies have focused on the dechlorination of PCBs in marine and estuarine sediments (14, 56, 225, 326). Reductive dechlorination of spiked PCBs has been demonstrated in slurries of sediments from several sites (14, 42, 175, 225, 317, 318). Apparently, only two laboratory studies have been reported for reductive dechlorination of pre-existing PCBs in marine sediments (14, 108). Fagervold recently showed for the first time that the synergistic activities of only three Chloroflexi phylotypes (SF1, SF2, and DEH10) reductively dechlorinated the 11 major PCB congeners in Aroclor 1260 to tetra- and trichlorobiphenyls in Baltimore harbour sediment (98). The loss of meta and/or para chlorines has been demonstrated when PCB mixtures (Aroclors 1242, 1248, 1254, 1260, etc.) have been microbially dechlorinated in sediments (14, 29, 34, 225, 326). The first experimental demonstration of a biologically mediated ortho-dechlorination of PCB was using microorganisms from sediments (293). Extensive reductive dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 was demonstrated in anaerobic slurries of estuarine sediments (241a), with removal of meta- and ortho-chlorines. Macedo observed the adaptation of microbial communities in soil contaminated with PCBs, leading to the transformation of more highly chlorinated congeners in biofilm communities (181). It was recently demonstrated that paddy field soils had the potential for microbial anaerobic degradation of a wide spectrum of PCB congeners (76).

Bioaugmentation

Natarajan reported extensive reductive dechlorination of spiked 23456-CB (219), Aroclor 1254 (221) and residual PCBs in sediments (220) by anaerobic microbial granules. Later, one successful augmentation study used a granular anaerobic methanogenic microbial consortium in the presence of carbon sources (223). Wu and Wiegel (266) reported that the addition of one PCB-dechlorinating culture and a PCB primer into Aroclor 1260-contaminated sediment enhanced dechlorination of the residual PCBs. Both reports also stated that primers are apparently required to sustain the dechlorination activity. Reductive PCB dechlorination activity may be catalysed by a group of micro-organisms within the dehalogenating Chloroflexi that appear to be prevalent in PCB-impacted sites (306). Yan found that sediment origin and chemistry significantly affected the activity of bioaugmented PCB-dechlorinating cultures (325).

Biostimulation

Dechlorination in freshwater and marine environments reaches its highest rate at 25°C, and at pH 6-8. Some macro- and microelements play a certain role in the process (32, 309, 336). The use of biphenyl or recombinant micro-organisms has been investigated in slurry bioreactors (102, 125, 173). Moreover, several studies about the dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 and 1254 contaminated sediments showed positive results, by priming the indigenous micro-organisms in sediments with PCBs (30, 35, 63, 250, 293). Bedard led several studies in Housatonic river sediment and obtained good results through addition of bromobiphenyls (30, 31, 37, 38). Bromobiphenyls are however themselves recalcitrant to degradation (2), halogenated benzoates seem to be more suitable (2). DeWeerd and Bedard (84) reported using them and other halogenated aromatic compounds to stimulate the microbial dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 (210). Dehalogenation of PCBs can be accelerated by nonspecific inducers (glucose, fatty acids, alcohols, as well as zero-valence iron and hydrogen), but the final products are the same (32, 63, 250, 295). Furthermore, the addition of a defined minimal medium containing nutrients and trace minerals significantly increased the rate of microbial activity (3, 4, 5). A very successful and promising laboratory study stimulated dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 through the addition of FeSO4 to PCB-contaminated soils (38, 342). The direct addition of Fe0 to sediments may effectively reduce the lag period prior to dechlorination (152). It was shown that the concentration of sodium bicarbonate had a profound effect on 2,3,4,5-CB dechlorination in sediments (324).

Combination of Anaerobic and Aerobic Transformation

The use of a sequential anaerobic–aerobic treatment has often been proposed as a potential bioremediation strategy for the treatment of soils and sludges contaminated with PCBs (3, 16, 285), and has been successfully tested in sediment microcosms (213, 247). In Canadian arctic soils contaminated by Arochlor 1260, inoculation of anaerobic river sediments decreased the average chlorine content by 20-30% (170). Likewise, Master (193) reported a sequential anaerobic–aerobic laboratory scale treatment of soil contaminated with weathered Aroclor 1260. Several two-step anaerobic-aerobic PCB bioremediation treatments were tested in Aroclor 1242 contaminated sediment (16, 246, 262). A biological tilled soil reactor operating under cycling anaerobic-aerobic conditions recently achieved 75% reduction of total PCB in sludge from the Ralston street lagoon heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1248 (286). Japanese researchers obtained a decrease of PCB concentration by 90–98% in 2 months by incubation of sewage sludge in bioreactors regularly fed with biphenyl and fresh bacteria (208). Natarajan (221) developed a echnique of obtaining anaerobic granules which degrade PCBs. This consortium was more efficient against low-chlorinated congeners and the process was accompanied by a decrease of concentration of biphenyls (221, 223, 281).

Other Possible Treatments

Phytoremediation

Rhizoremediation is a promising bioremediation strategy (179, 289, 333). The ability of plant cells to metabolize PCBs was demonstrated 20 years ago by Groeger and Fletcher (130). It has been shown that some compounds present in root exudates can induce the bacterial degradation of PCBs (89, 111, 122, 185). Leigh first reported indigenous PCB-degrading microbial populations associated with mature perennial plants growing in PCB-contaminated soil (179). Recent papers suggest the importance of the relationship between plants and rhizospheric bacteria (65, 66, 186, 189) concerning their ability to degrade PCBs. Wilken (311) studied the metabolism of 10 different congeners of PCBs in 12 cell cultures of different plant species. Later, the ability of cultures of various species cultivated in vitro to degrade Delor 103 was studied (82, 153, 182-184). Brassica nigra directly contributed to accelerated PCB removal in Aroclor 1242 contaminated soil (268). Carex aquatalis and Spartina pectinata are predicted to be the most effective plant treatments for phytoremediation of PCBs (269). Efforts were undertaken to expand the degradation capacities of rhizosphere-competent bacteria (52, 83, 251, 333). Strain F113 is an excellent coloniser of several plant rhizospheres (81, 218, 261, 265, 296). Zeeb (336) recently studied phytoremediation of a soil weakly contaminated by aged Arochlor 1260. But no noticeable PCB removal was observed (336). Alfalfa, black nightshade, and particularly tobacco grown on a soil with a long-time PCB contamination have a positive effect on the rate of PCB degradation (251).

Dechlorination by White Rot Fungi

Although many fungi have been tested for their ability to degrade PCBs including the white-rot fungi (20, 58, 85, 90, 92, 110, 252, 287, 300, 320, 335), the mechanism of PCB biodegradation has not been definitively determined (23, 58, 85, 92, 252, 287, 300, 320). Phanerochaete chrysosporium (72) decreased PCB concentrations of Aroclors 1242, 1254, and 1260. Furthermore, congeners of lower chlorine number were shown to be degraded more extensively (320). The ability to degrade low PCB concentrations was demonstrated for several strains (154, 161, 169). Beaudette compared the biodegradation of six PCB congeners by 12 white rot fungi (23). However, only few PCB degradation studies in soil systems were performed (168, 169, 335). Low surfactant concentrations increased fungal mineralization of PCB congeners by white-rot fungi (24).

Dechlorination by Earthworms

Recent results suggest that vermicomposting bioreactors may be a suitable mechanism to remove PCBs from contaminated sludge or soils (286).

Increasing Availability

The low water solubility of PCBs and their tendency to adhere tightly to soil are limiting factors for efficient PCB degradation. Chang demonstrated an inverse correlation between solid concentrations and PCB removal performances (62). The bioavailability of PCBs in such contaminated matrixes may be effectively enhanced by amending them with suitable surfactants and bio-surfactants (1, 120, 215, 249, 292, 298). However, a number of commercial surfactants are temselves recalcitrant toxic compounds (103, 174, 249, 298). Pure cyclodextrines have however been successfully employed (505, 506). A biosurfactant is more suitable than a synthetic one (173, 267). Some bio-surfactants such as rhamnolipids, are usually accumulated in nature (88, 145). Enzymatically synthesized maltotriose esters were shown to increase the bioavailability of Aroclor 1242 (112). RAMEB (a technical mixture of irregularly methylated β-cyclodextrines), which is produced biologically, was found capable of significantly enhancing PCB bioavailability and aerobic biodegradation of PCBs in different contaminated soils (105, 107). Electrokinetic manipulation of sorbed PCBs also can increase the contaminant’s availability to microbial or chemical processes (149). Non-ionic surfactants wash more PCBs from the soil than biosurfactants, but inhibited their biodegradation with the LB400 strain (47).

Sludge Treatment

In 1992, Castaldi & Ford reported 73% removal of PCBs in 90 days of A-SB treatment of petrochemical waste sludge polluted with 115 mg/kg of PCBs (60). The potential of a chlorophenol-adapted consortium to dechlorinate PCBs in sewage sludge was investigated by Chang. The addition of acetate, lactate, pyruvate, and ferric chloride to a number of PCB congeners decreased lag times and enhanced dechlorination (62). Nakhla evaluated the biodegradability of high concentrations (130-530 ppm) of the highly chlorinated PCB congeners Aroclor 1254 and 1260 in oily sludge generated from a groundwater treatment system. Efficient PCB removal were observed (73 to 89%) (217). Furthermore, Nollet showed that using different carbon/electron sources to acclimatise anaerobic granules from commercial bioreactors could shorten the reductive dechlorination of a tri- and hepta-chlorobiphenyl in anaerobic sludge (223). At low PCB level in non-spiked sludge sample and under strict methanogenic conditions, Patureau observed PCB removals of about 40%, at all degrees of PCB chlorination (228). A recent study on the Ralston street lagoon sludge showed that with suitable amendments, anaerobic dechlorination may be a potentially viable option for on-site reduction of total PCB levels in sludge (286). Removal of Aroclor 1242 was observed in a continuously operated upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor inoculated with granular anaerobic sludge (280). The best dechlorination rate observed in this study was much higher than the value observed in a river sediment study without addition of nutrients (238) but comparable to rates observed in batch dechlorination tests using anaerobic sludge (219). Significant detoxification and PCB mineralization in contaminated activated sludge was observed after 10 months anaerobic incubation at 35°C (43). Finally, an anaerobic digester seeded with waste activated sludge showed a better PCB biodegradation under thermophilic conditions than under mesophilic conditions (41). Dionisi tried the same comparison with xenobiotic-containing sludge but found different results (86)

References

1. Abdul AS, Gibson TL (1991) Laboratory studies of surfactant enhanced washing of polychlorinated biphenyl from sandy material. Environ. Sci. Technol. 25: 665–671. 2. Abraham, W.R., Nogales, B., Golyshin, P.N., Pieper, D.H.and Timmis, K.N. (2002) Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Degrading Microbial Communities in Soils and Sediments, Current Opinion in Microbiology 5(3): 246-253 3. Abramowicz, D.A. (1990) Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of PCBs: a review. Vol. 10, 241-251, In, CRC Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, G.G. Steward and I. Russell, (eds.), CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL 4. Abramowicz, D.A., Brennan, M.J., Van Dort, H.M., and E.L. Gallagher. (1990) Anaerobic microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls. In, Chemical and Biochemical Detoxification of Hazardous Waste II. J. Glasser, (ed.), Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI. 5. Abramowicz, D.A., Brennan, M.J., Van Dort, H.M., and E.L. Gallagher. (1993) Factors influencing the rate of polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination in Hudson River sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol., 27, 1125-1131. 6. Abramowicz, D. A. 1994. Aerobic PCB degradation and anaerobic PCB dechlorination in the environment. Res. Microbiol. 145:42–46. 7. Abramowicz, D.A. and Olson, D.R. (1995) Accelerated biodegradation of PCBs. Chemtech. 25, 36-41. 8. Abramowicz DA, Brown JF Jr, Harkness MR, O’Donnell MK. (1996) In situ anaerobic PCB dechlorination and aerobic PCB biodegradation in Hudson River sediments, pp 27–43. In: Hickey RF, Smith G, editors. Biotechnology in industrial waste treatment and bioremediation. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, CRC Press, Inc. 9. SA. Adebusoye, FW. Picardal MO. Ilori, OO. Amund, C Fuqua and N Grindle (2007) Growth on dichlorobiphenyls with chlorine substitution on each ring by bacteria isolated from contaminated African soils - Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Volume 74, Number 2 / February, 10. SA Adebusoye, MO Ilori, FW Picardal, OO Amund, Cometabolic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by axenic cultures of Ralstonia sp. strain SA-5 and Pseudomonas sp. strain SA-6 obtained from Nigerian contaminated soils. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Volume 24, Number 1 / January, (2008) 11. SA Adebusoye, FW Picardal, MO Ilori, OO Amund, Influence of chlorobenzoic acids on the growth and degradation potentials of PCB-degrading -World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Volume 24, Number 7 / July, (2008) 12. SA Adebusoye, FW Picardal, MO Ilori, OO Evidence of aerobic utilization of di-ortho-substituted trichlorobiphenyls as growth substrates by Pseudomonas sp. SA-6 and Ralstonia sp. SA-4 Amund Environmental Microbiology (2008) 10(5), 1165–1174 13. Ahn, Y.B., Beaudette, L.A., Lee, H., and Trevors, J.T., (2001) Survival of a gfp-Labeled Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degrading Psychrotolerant Pseudomonas spp. in 4 and 22 Degrees C Soil Microcosms, Microbial. Ecology, vol. 42, pp. 614–623 14. Alder, A. C., M. M. Ha¨ggblom, S. Oppenheimer, and L. Y. Young. (1993) Reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in anaerobic sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 27:530–538. 15. Ang, E.L., Zhao, H.M., and Obbard, J.P. (2005) Recent Advances in the Bioremediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants Via Biomolecular Engineering, Enz. Microbial Technol., vol. 37, pp. 487–496. 16. P Anid, B.P. Ravest-Webster and T.M. Vogel, (1993) Biodegradation of anaerobic PCB-contaminated sediments, Biodegradation 4, pp. 241–248. 17. G Anitescu and Lawrence L. Tavlarides (2000) Oxidation of Aroclor 1248 in Supercritical Water: A Global Kinetic Study Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, 39, 583-591 18. Anitescu G (2002) Methanol as a cosolvent and rate-enhancer for the oxidation kinetics of 3,3 ',4,4 '-tetrachlorobiphenyl decomposition in supercritical water INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH 41 : 9 19. Anitescu G (2004) Decomposition of monochlorobiphenyl isomers in supercritical water in the presence of methanol AICHE JOURNAL 50 : 1536 20. Aust, S. D. (1990) Degradation of environmental pollutants by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Microb. Ecol. 20:197–209. 21. Barriault D, Sylvestre M. (1993) Factors affecting PCB biodegradation by implanted bacterial strain in soil microcosms. Can J Microbiol 39: 594–602. 22. R.A. Baxter, P.E. Gilbert, R.A. Lidgett, J.H. Mainprize and H.A. Vodden (1975) The degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by microorganisms, Sci Total Environ 4, pp. 53–61. 23. L. A. Beaudette, S. Davies, P. M. Fedorak, O. P. Ward, and M. A. Pickard (1998) Comparison of Gas Chromatography and Mineralization Experiments for Measuring Loss of Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Cultures of White Rot Fungi Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 64, 2020-2025 24. Beaudette, L.A., et aL , “Low Surfactant Concentration Increases Fungal Mineralization of a Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congener But Has No Effect on Overall Metabolism,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, 30, 2, pp 155-160, (2000) 25. Bedard DL, Brennan MJ, Unterman R. (1983) Bacterial degradation of PCBs: evidence of distinct pathways in Corynebacterium sp. MB1 and Alcalegenes eutrophus H850. In: Addis G, Komai R, editors. Proceedings of the 1983 PCB Seminar, Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto; California. p. 4-101–4-118. 26. Bedard DL, Unterman R, Bopp LH, Brennan MJ, Haberl ML, Johnson C (1986) Rapid assay for screening and characterizing microorganisms for the ability to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls. Appl Environ Microbiol 51(4):761–768 27. D.L. Bedard, R.E. Wagner, M.J. Brennan, M.L. Haberl and J.F. Brown Jr. (1987) Extensive degradation of Aroclors and environmentally transformed polychlorinated biphenyls by Alcalegenes eutrophus H850, Appl Environ Microbiol 53, pp. 1094–1102. 28. Bedard DL (1990) Bacterial transformation of polychlorinated biphenyls. Biodegradation 4:370–388 29. Bedard, D. L., H. M. Van Dort, S. C. Bunnell, L. M. Principe, K. A. DeWeerd, R. J. May, and L. A. Smullen. (1993) Stimulation of reductive dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 contaminant in anaerobic slurries of Woods Pond sediment, p. 19–21. In Anaerobic dehalogenation and its environmental implications, Abstracts of the 1992 American Society Microbiology Conference. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 30. Bedard, D.L., Smullen, L.A., DeWeerd K.A., Dietrich, D.K., Frame, G.M., II and Principe, J.M. (1993) Activating microbial dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 in Woods Pond: A field study. In: Twelfth Progress Report of Research and Development Program for the Destruction of PCBs, pp. 15-44. General Electric Co. Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY. 31. Bedard, D.L., Smullen, L.-N., DeWeerd, K.A., Dietrich, D.K., Frame, G.M., May, R.J., Principe, J.M., Rouse, T.O., Fessler, W.A. and Nicholson, J.S. (1995) Chemical activation of microbially- mediated PCB dechlorination: A ˘eld study. Organohalog. Compd. 24, 23-28. 32. Bedard, D.L. and Quensen III, J.F. (1995) Microbial Reductive Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Microbial Transformation and Degradation of Toxic Organic Chemicals, Young, Y. and Cerniglia, C.E., Eds., New York: Wiley-Liss, pp. 127–216. 33. Bedard, D.L. and May, R.J. (1996) Characterization of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediment of Woods Pond: Evidence for microbial dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 in situ. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30, 237-245. 34. Bedard, D.L., Bunnell, S.C. and Smullen, L.A. (1996) Stimulation of microbial para-dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls that have persisted in Housatonic River sediment for decades. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30, 687-694. 35. Bedard, D.L., Van Dort, H.M., May, R.J. and Smullen, L.A. (1997) Enrichment of microorganisms that sequentially meta, para-dechlorinate the residue of Aroclor 1260 in Housatonic River sediment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31, 3308-3313. 36. Bedard, D.L. and Van Dort, H.M. (1997) The role of microbial PCB dechlorination in natural restoration and bioremediation. In: Biotechnology in the Sustainable Environment (Sayler, G.S., Sanserverino, J. and Davis, K., Eds.), pp. 65-71. Plenum Publishing Corp., New York. 37. Bedard, D. L., Van Dort, H., Deweerd, K. A. (1998) Brominated Biphenyls Prime Extensive Microbial Reductive Dehalogenation of Aroclor 1260 in Housatonic River Sediment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 1786-1795 38. Bedard, Donna L. (2003) “Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Aquatic Sediments: Environmental Fate and Outlook for Biological Treatment.” Dehalogenation: Microbial Processes and Environmental Applications, M.M. Haggblom and I. Bossert, eds., Kluwer Press:443-465. 39. Bedard, D.L., Bailey, J.J., Reiss, B.L., and Jerzak, G.V. (2006) Development and Characterization of Stable Sediment-Free Anaerobic Bacterial Enrichment Cultures That Dechlorinate Aroclor 1260, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., vol. 72, pp. 2460–2470. 40. Bedard, D. L., Ritalahti, K. M., Loffler, F. E. (2007) The Dehalococcoides Population in Sediment-Free Mixed Cultures Metabolically Dechlorinates the Commercial Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture Aroclor 1260. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 2513-2521 41. T. Benabdallah El-Hadj, J. Dosta, R. Torres, J. Mata-A´ lvarez PCB and AOX removal in mesophilic and thermophilic sewage sludge digestion Biochemical Engineering Journal 36 (2007) 281–287 42. Berkaw, M., Sowers, K.R. and May, H.D. (1996) Anaerobic ortho dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls by estuarine sediments from Baltimore Harbor. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 2534^2539. 43. L Bertin, Serena Capodicasa, Fabio Occulti, Stefano Girotti, Leonardo Marchetti, Fabio Fava Microbial processes associated to the decontamination and detoxification of a polluted activated sludge during its anaerobic stabilization WAT ER RESEARCH 41 (2007) 2407 – 2416 44. Bigg T, Judd SJ (2000) Zero-valent iron for water treatment ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY Volume: 21 Issue: 6 Pages: 661-670 45. Billingsley KA, Backus SM, Ward OP (1997) Studies on transformation of selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by Pseudomonas strain LB400. Can. J. Microbiol. 43: 782–788. 46. Billingsley KA, Backus SM, Ward OP (1999) Effect of surfactant solubilization on biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by Pseudomonas LB400. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 52: 255–260. 47. K.A. Billingsley, S.M. Backus, S. Wilson, A. Singh & O.P.Ward Remediation of PCBs in soil by surfactant washing and biodegradation in the wash by Pseudomonas sp. LB400 Biotechnology Letters 24: 1827–1832, (2002) 48. Blaney, C. A.; Li, L.; Gloyna, E. F.; Hossain, S. U. (1996) Supercritical Water Oxidation of Pulp and Paper Mill Sludge (as an Alternative to Incineration). In Minimum Effluent Mills Symposium; TAPPI Press: Atlanta, G; pp 79-93 49. Blasco R, Mallavarapu M, Wittich RM, Timmis KN, Pieper DH. (1997) Evidence that formation of protoanemonin from metabolites of 4-chlorobiphenyl degradation negatively affects the survival of 4-chlorobiphenyl- cometabolizing microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol 63: 427–434. 50. Bopp, L.H. (1986) Degradation of highly chlorinated PCBs by Pseudomonas strain LB400. Jour. Indust. Microbiol., 1, 23-29. 51. Borja, J., Taleon, D.M., Auresenia, J., and Gallardo, S., (2005) Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Their Biodegradation, Process. Biochemistry, vol. 40, pp. 1999–2013. 52. Brazil GM, Kenefick L, Callanan M, Haro A, de Lorenzo V, Dowling DN, O’Gara F (1995) Construction of a rhizosphere pseudomonad with potential to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls and detection of bph gene expression in the rhizosphere. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1946–1952 53. Brown Jr., J.F., Wagner, R.E., Bedard, D.L., Brennan, M.J., Carnahan, J.C., May, R.J. and ToĄemire, T.J. (1984) PCB transformations in upper Hudson sediments. Northeast Environ. Sci. 3, 167-169. 54. Brown Jr., J.F., Wagner, R.E., Feng, H., Bedard, D.L., Brennan, M.J., Carnahan, J.C. and May, R.J. (1987) Environmental dechlorination of PCBs. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 6, 579-593. 55. Brown Jr., J.F., Bedard, D.L., Brennan, M.J., Carnahan, J.C., Feng, H. and Wagner, R.E. (1987) Polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination in aquatic sediments. Science 236, 709-712. 56. Brown, J. F., Jr., and R. E. Wagner. 1990. PCB movement, dechlorination, and detoxication in the Acushnet estuary. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9:1215– 1233. 57. Brunner, W., Sutherland, F.H., and Focht, D.D., Enhanced Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil by Analog Enrichment and Bacterial Inoculation, J. Environ. Qual., 1985, vol. 14, pp. 324–328. 58. Bumpus, J. A., M. Tien, D. Wright, and S. D. Aust. (1985) Oxidation of persistent environmental pollutants by a white rot fungus. Science 228: 1434–1436 59. Burkhard J, Macková M, Macek T, Ku erová P, Demnerová K. Analytical procedure for the estimation of PCB transformation by plant tissue cultures. Anal Commun Royal Soc 1997;34:287–90. 60. Castaldi FJ, Ford DL: Slurry bioremediation of petrochemical waste sludges (1992) Water Sci Technol, 25(3):207-212. 61. W. James Catallo1 and Thomas Junk (1995) Sonochemical dechlorination of hazardous wastes in aqueous systems Waste Management Volume 15, Issue 4, , Pages 303-309 62. Chang BV, Chou SW & Yuan SY (1999) Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in anaerobic sewage sludge. Chemosphere 39: 45–54 63. Chang, B.V., Liu, W.G., and Yuan, S.Y., (2001) Microbial Dechlorination of Three PCBs Congeners in River Sediment, Chemosphere, vol. 45, pp. 849–856. 64. Chang FC, Chiu TC, Yen JH, Wang YS (2003) Dechlorination pathways of ortho-substituted PCBs by UV irradiation in n-hexane and their correlation to the charge distribution on carbon atom CHEMOSPHERE Volume: 51 Issue: 8 Pages: 775-784 Published: JUN 2003 65. Chaudhry Q, Blom-Zandstra M, Gupta S, et al. Utilising the synergy between plants and rhizosphere microorganisms to enhance breakdown of organic pollutants in the environment ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 34-48 Published: 2005 66. Chekol T, Vough LR, Chaney Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils: the rhizosphere effect RL ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL Volume: 30 Issue: 6 Pages: 799-804 Published: AUG 2004 67. Chuang, F.; Larson, R. A.; Wessman, M. S. (1995) Environ. Sci. Technol., 29 (9), 2460-2463. 68. R.R. Clark, E.S.K. Chian and R.A. Griffin, (1979) Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by mixed microbial cultures, Appl Environ Microbiol 37 pp. 680–685 69. Commandeur, L. C. M., R. J. May, H. Mokross, D. L. Bedard, W. Reineke, H. A. J. Govers, and J. R. Parsons. 1996. Aerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by Alcaligenes sp. JB1: metabolites and enzymes. Biodegradation 7:435–443. 70. Connors and Rusling, 1983 T.F. Connors and J.F. Rusling, (1983) Removal of chloride from 4-chlorobiphenyl and 4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl by electrocatalytic reduction, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, pp. 1120–1121. 71. Connors and Rusling, 1984 T.F. Connors and J.F. Rusling, (1984) Ultrasonically-assisted electrocatalytic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls, Chemosphere 13, pp. 415–420 72. J.T. Cookson Jr. (1995) Bioremediation engineering: design and application, McGraw Hill, New York 73. Cravotto G, Di Carlo S, Tumiatti V, et al (2005) Degradation of persistent organic pollutants by Fenton's reagent facilitated by microwave or high-intensity ultrasound ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY Volume: 26 Issue: 7 Pages: 721-724 74. Cutter, L.A., Sowers, K.R. and May, H.D. (1998) Microbial transformation of 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl under anaerobic conditions in the absence of soil or sediment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 2966-2969. 75. Cutter LA, Watts JEM, Sowers KR & May HD (2001) Identification of a microorganism that links its growth to the reductive dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-chlorobiphenyl. Environ Microbiol 3: 699–709. 76. Daisuke Baba, Tsuyoshi Yasuta ,Naoko Yoshida ,Yuko Kimura , Katsuhide Miyake , Yasushi Inoue ,Koki Toyota , Arata Katayama Anaerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by a microbial consortium originated from uncontaminated paddy soil World J Microbiol Biotechnol (2007) 23:1627–1636 77. David L. Sediak and Anders W. Andren. (1991) Aqueous-phase oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls by hydroxyl radicals Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 25, No. 8, p 1419 78. David, M.; Brondyk, L. M.; Sonzogni, W. C. Distribution of PCB congeners in Sheboygan River (Wisconsin) sediments. J. Great Lakes Res. 1994, 20, 510-522. 79. David L. Sedlak, Anders W. Andren (1994) The effect of sorption on the oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by hydroxyl radical. Water Research Volume 28, Issue 5, May 1994, Pages 1207-1215 80. J De, N Ramaiah, A Sarkar Aerobic degradation of highly chlorinated polychlorobiphenyls by a marine bacterium, Pseudomonas CH07 - World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Volume 22, Number 12 / December, 2006 81.Delany IR, Walsh UF, Ross I, Fenton AM, Corkery DM, O’Gara F (2001) Enhancing the biocontrol efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 by altering the regulation and production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol - improved pseudomonas biocontrol inoculants. Plant Soil 232:195–205 82. Demnerová K, Burkhard J, Ko ál J, Macková M, Pazlarová J, Kuncová G, Macek T, Ka tánek F. Biodegradation of alkanes and PCBs: Experience in the Czech Republic. In: Holm FW, editor. Mobile Alternative Demilitarisation Technologies, NATO SA Series 1, Vol. 12. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. pp. 53–70. 83. Demnerova K, Mackova M, Spevakova V, Beranova K, Kochankova L, Petra Lovecka P, Ryslava E, Macek T (2005) Two approaches to biological decontamination of groundwater and soil polluted by aromatics - Characterization of microbial populations. Int Microbiol 8:205–211 84. DeWeerd, K.A. and Bedard, D.L. (1999) Use of halogenated benzoates and other halogenated aromatic compounds to stimulate the microbial dechlorination of PCBs. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33, 2057^ 2063. 85. Dietrich, D., W. J. Hickey, and R. Lamar. 1995. Degradation of 4,49-dichlorobiphenyl, 3,39,4,49-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 2,29,4,49,5,59-hexachlorobiphe- nyl by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:3904–3909. 86. D Dionisi, L Bertin, Lorena Bornoroni, Serena Capodicasa, Marco Petrangeli Papini and Fabio Fava Removal of organic xenobiotics in activated sludges under aerobic conditions and anaerobic digestion of the adsorbed species Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 81:1496–1505 (2006) 87. Dirk C. Hinz, Chien M. Wai and Bernd W. Wenclawiak Remediation of a nonachloro biphenyl congener with zero-valent iron in subcritical water JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING 2 : 45 2000 88. Doick, K.J., Burauel, P., Jones, K.C., and Semple, K.T., (2005) Effect of Cyclodextrin and Transformer Oil Amendments on the Chemical Extractability of Aged [C-14] Polychlorinated Biphenyl and [C-14] Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Residues in Soil, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., vol. 24, pp. 2138–2144. 89. Donelly PK, Hedge RS, Fletcher JS. Growth of PCB-degrading bacteria on compounds from photosynthetic plants. Chemosphere 1994;28:984–8. 90. Donnelly, P. K., and J. S. Fletcher. 1995. PCB metabolism by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 54:507–513. 91. Doyle JG (1998) Quantification of total polychlorinated biphenyl by dechlorination to biphenyl by Pd/Fe and Pd/Mg bimetallic particles MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL 60 : 290 92. Eaton, D. C. 1985. Mineralization of polychlorinated biphenyls by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: a ligninolytic fungus. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 7: 194–196. 93. Engelmann M (2000) Total polychlorinated biphenyl quantification by rapid dechlorination under mild conditions LC GC NORTH AMERICA 18 : 154 94. Engelmann M (2003) Simultaneous determination of total polychlorinated biphenyl and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) by dechlorination with Fe/Pd and Mg/Pd bimetallic articles and flame ionization detection gas chromatography MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL 74 : 19 95. Evans BS, Dudley CA, Klasson KT (1996) Sequential anaerobic–aerobic biodegradation of PCBs in soil slurry microcosms. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 57/58:885–894 96. Eykholt, G.; Davenport, D. (1998) Environ. Sci. Technol., 32 (10), 1482-1487. 97. Fagervold, S. K., Watts, J. E. M., May, H. D., Sowers, K. R. (2005) Sequential Reductive Dechlorination of meta-Chlorinated Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Sediment Microcosms by Two Different Chloroflexi Phylotypes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 8085-8090 98. S. K. Fagervold, H. D. May, and K. R. Sowers (2007) Microbial Reductive Dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 in Baltimore Harbor Sediment Microcosms Is Catalyzed by Three Phylotypes within the Phylum Chloroflexi. Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 73, 3009-3018 99. Farwell et al., 1975 S.O. Farwell et al. (1975) Reduction pathway of organohalogen compounds. Part ii. Polychlorinated biphenyls, J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfac. Electrochem. 61, pp. 315–324. 100. Faulkner, D. J. 1995. Marine natural products. Nat. Prod. Rep. 12:223–269. 101. F. Fava, S. Zappali, L. Manchetti and L. Morselli (1991) Biodegradation of chlorinated biphenyls (Frenclor 42) in batch cultures with mixed and pure aerobic cultures, Chemosphere 22, pp. 3–14. 102. Fava, F. and D. Di Gioia, “Effects of Triton X-100 and Quillaya Saponin on the ex situ Bioremediation of a Chronically Polychlorobiphenyl-Contaminated Soil,” Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 50, pp 623-630, 1998. 103. Fava F, Di Gioia D, Marchetti L. 1998. Cyclodextrin effects on the ex-situ bioremediation of a chronically polychlorobiphenyl-contaminated soil. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:345–355. 104. Fava F, Bertin L Use of exogenous specialised bacteria in the biological detoxification of a dump site-polychlorobiphenyl-contaminated soil in slurry phase conditions BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING Volume: 64 Issue: 2 Pages: 240-249 Published: JUL 20 1999 105. F. Fava • V.F. Ciccotosto Effects of randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrins (RAMEB) on the bioavailability and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in three pristine soils spiked with a transformer oil Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2002) 58:393–399 106. Fava F, Gentilucci S, Zanaroli G. (2003) Anaerobic biodegradation of weathered polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated sediments of Porto Marghera (Venice, Lagoon, Italy). Chemosphere ; 53:101–9. 107. Fava, F., Bertin, L., Fedi, S., and Zannoni, D., (2003) Methyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin-Enhanced Solubilization and Aerobic Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Two Aged-Contaminated Soils, Biotechnol. Bioeng., vol. 81, pp. 381–390. 108. F. Fava, G. Zanaroli, L. Y. Young. Microbial reductive dechlorination of pre-existing PCBs and spiked 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorobiphenyl in anaerobic slurries of a contaminated sediment of Venice Lagoon (Italy) FEMS Microbiology Ecology 44 (2003) 309^318 109. Fennell DE, Nijenhuis I, Wilson SF, Zinder SH, Ha¨ggblom MM (2004) Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 reductively dechlorinates diverse chlorinated aromatic pollutants. Environ Sci Technol 38:2075–2081 110. J. M. Fern ndez-S nchez; R. Rodr guez-V zquez; G. Ruiz-Aguilar; P. J. J. Alvarez PCB BIODEGRADATION IN AGED CONTAMINATED SOIL: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN EXOGENOUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM AND INDIGENOUS MICROORGANISMS Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 2001 111. Fletcher JS, Donnelly PK, Hedge RS. Biostimulation of PCB-degrading bacteria by compounds released from plant roots. In: Hinchee RE, Anderson DB, Hoeppel RE, editors. Bioremediation of recalcitrant organics. Columbus: Battelle Press, 1995. pp. 131–6. 112. Ferrer M., P. Golyshin, and K.N. Timmis K.N. (2003) “Novel Maltotriose Esters Enhance Biodegradation of Aroclor 1242 by Burkholderia cepacia LB400.” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 19(6):637-643. 113. Fiebig R, Schulze D, Erlemann P, Slawinski M, Dellweg H. 1993. Microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in contaminated soil. Biotechnol Lett 15:93–98 114. Fish, K.M. and Principe, J.M. (1994) Biotransformations of Aroclor 1242 in Hudson River test tube microcosms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 4289^4296. 115. Flanagan WP, May RJ. 1993. Metabolite detection as evidence for naturally occurring aerobic PCB biodegradation in Hudson River sediments. Environ Sci Technol 27:2207–2212. 116. D.D. Focht and W. Brunner (1985) Kinetics of biphenyl and chlorinated biphenyl metabolism in soil, Appl Environ Microbiol 50, pp. 1058–1063. 117. Focht, D. D. 1993. Microbial degradation of chlorinated biphenyls, p. 341– 400. In J. M. Bollag and G. Stotzky (ed.), Soil biochemistry, vol. 8. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y. 118. K. Furukawa, K. Tonomura and A. Kamibayashi (1978) Effect of chlorine substitution on the biodegradability of polychlorinated biphenyl, Appl Environ Microbiol 35, pp. 223–227. 119. Ghosh U, Weber AS, Jensen JN, et al. (1999) Granular activated carbon and biological activated carbon treatment of dissolved and sorbed polychlorinated biphenyls Source: WATER ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH Volume: 71 Issue: 2 Pages: 232-240 Published: MAR-APR 1999 120. Ghosh, U., et a2. ,” Relationship Between PCB Desorption Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Availability during Land Biotreatment,” Env. Sci. Technol., 34, 12, pp 2542-2548, 2000 121. Gibson DT, Cruden DL, Haddock JD, Zylstra GJ, Brand JM (1993) Oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls by Pseudomonas sp. LB400 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. J Bacteriol 175:4561–4564 122. Gilbert ES, Crowley DE. Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B. Appl Environ Microbiol 1997;63:1933–8. 123. Gillham, R. W.; O’Hannesin, S. F. (1994) Ground Water, 32, 958-967. 124. Di Gioia D, Bertin L, Zanaroli G, et al.Polychlorinated biphenyl degradation in aqueous wastes by employing continuous fixed-bed bioreactors PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY Volume: 41 Issue: 4 Pages: 935-940 Published: APR 2006 125. Ghosh, M.M., et aL , “Surfactant-Enhanced Bioremediation of PAH- and PCB-Contaminated Soils,” International in situ On-Site Bioreclamation Symposium, Vol. 3,R.E. Hinchee, et al., Editors, Batelle Press, San Diego, CA, pp 15-23, 1995. 126. Gloyna, E. F.; Li, L.; McBrayer, R. N. (1994) Engineering Aspects of Supercritical Water Oxidation. Water Sci. Technol., 30, 1. 127. Gloyna, E. F.; Li, L. (1995) Supercritical Water Oxidation Research and Development Update. Environ. Prog. 14, 182. 128. Gloyna, E. F. (2000) Supercritical water oxidation: An effective wastewater and sludge treatment technology. Kankio Gijutsu, 29 (5), 393. 129. Grätzel C. K., Jirousek M. and GraČ tzel M. (1990) Decomposition of organophosphorus compounds on photoactivated TiO2 surfaces. J. Mol. Catal. 60, 375±387. 130. Groeger AW, Fletcher JS. The influence of increasing chlorine content on the accumulation and metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls by Paul’s Scarlet Rose cells. Plant Cell Reports 1988;7:329–32. 131. C. Grittini, M. Malcomson, Q. Fernando and N. Korte, (1995) Rapid dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls on the surface of a Pd/Fe bimetallic system, Environ. Sci. Technol., 29 2898–2900. 132. Gruiz K, Fenyvesi E, Kriston E, Molnar M, Horvath B (1996) Potential use of cyclodextrins in soil bioremediation. J Inclusion Phenom Mol Recog Chem 25:233–236 133. Hadnagy E, Rauch LM, Gardner KH (2007) Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls, naphthalenes and dibenzo-p-dioxins by magnesium/palladium bimetallic particles JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH PART A-TOXIC / HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Volume: 42 Issue: 6 Pages: 685-695 134. Haluska L, Barancı´kova´ G, Bala´z S, Dercova´ K, Vrana B, Paz-Weisshaar M, Furciova´ E, Bielek P. 1995. Degradation of PCB in different soils by inoculated Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Sci Total Environ 175: 275–285. 135. Hanari N, Kannan K, Horii Y, Taniyasu S, Yamashita N, Jude DJ, et al. (2004) Polychlorinated naphtalenes and polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic organisms of a Lakes food chain. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol; 47:84–93. 136. Harkness MR, McDermott JB, Abramowicz DA, Salvo JJ, Flanagan WP, Stephens ML, Mondello FJ, May RJ, Lobos JH, Carrol KM, et al. (1993) In situ stimulation of aerobic PCB biodegradation in Hudson River sediments. Science 259: 503–507. 137. Hartcamp-Commandeur, L.C.M. (1996) Reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls by anaerobic microorganisms enriched from Dutch sediments. Chemosphere 32, 1275-1286. 138. Hatakeda K, Ikushima Y, Ito S, Saito N, Sato O (1997) Supercritical water oxidation of a PCB of 3-chlorobiphenyl using hydrogen peroxide Chemistry Letters Issue: 3 Pages: 245-246 Published: 1997 139. Hatakeda K, Ikushima Y, Sato O, Aizawa T, Saito N (1999) Supercritical water oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls using hydrogen peroxide Chem. Eng. Sci., Volume: 54 Issue: 15-16 Pages: 3079-3084 Published: AUG 1999 140. Havel J, Reineke W. 1993. Degradation of Aroclor 1221 in soil by a hybrid pseudomonad. FEMS Microbiol Lett 108:211–218. 141. Hickey WJ, Searles DB, Focht DD. 1993. Enhanced mineralization of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils inoculated with chlorobenzoatedegrading bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:1194–1200. 142. C. Holliger, G. Wohlfarth and G. Diekert (1998) Reductive dechlorination in the energy metabolism of anaerobic bacteria, FEMS Microbiol Rev 22 , pp. 383–398. 143. Hong C.-S., Wang Y. and Bush B. (1998) Kinetics and products of the TiO2 photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorobiphenyl in water. Chemosphere 36(7), 1653±1667. 144. I. W. Huang, C. S. Hong and B. Bush, (1996) Photocatalytic degradation of PCBs in TiO2 suspensions, Chemosphere 32(9), 1869-1881 145. Hudak, A.J. and Cassidy, D.P., (2004) Stimulating In-Soil Rhamnolipid Production in a Bioslurry Reactor by Limiting Nitrogen, Biotechnol. Bioeng., , vol. 88, pp. 861–868. 146. Hutzinger, O., Verrkamp, W., (1981) Microbial Degradation of Xenobiotics and Recalcitrant Compounds. Academic Press, NewYork. 147. Imamoglu, I.; Li, K.; Christensen, E. R. Modeling polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns and dechlorination in dated sediments from the Ashtabula River, Ohio, USA. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2002, 21, 2283-2291. 148. Imamoglu, I.; Li, K.; Christensen, E. R.; McMullin, J. K. Sources and dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the sediments of Fox River, Wisconsin. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2004, 38, 2574-2583. 149. Jackman, Simon. (2004) Oxford University. Telephone interview, June 2004. 110 Rehmann L, Daugulis AJ Bioavailability of PCBs in biphasic bioreactors BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL Volume: 38 Issue: 2 Pages: 219-225 Published: FEB 15 2008 150. Janderka and Broz, 1995 P. Janderka and P. Broz, (1995) Electrochemical degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 60, pp. 917–927 151. Janderka and Broz, 1995 P. Janderka and P. Broz, (1984) Electrochemical degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls, Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 60, pp. 917–927. 152. Jason P. Rysavy, Tao Yan, Paige J. Novak. Enrichment of anaerobic polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorinators from sediment with iron as a hydrogen source Water Research 39 (2005) 569–578 153. Ká J, Burkhard J, Demnerová K, Ko ál J, Macek T, Macková M, Pazlarová J. Perspectives in biodegradation of alkanes and PCBs. Pure and Appl Chem 1997;69:2357–69. 154. Kamei, I., Kogura, R., and Kondo, R. (2006) Metabolism of 4,4'-Dichlorobiphenyl by White-Rot Fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete sp. MZ142, Appl. Microbiol. Biothech., vol. 72, pp. 566–575. 155. J. Kas, J. Burkhard, K. Demnerova, J. Kost'al, T. Macek, M. Mackova, and J. Pazlarova Perspectives in biodegradation of alkanes and PCBs. Pure &Appl. Chern., Vol. 69, No. 11, pp. 2357-2369, 1997. 156. F Kastáneka, G Kuncováa, K ina Demnerováb, et al. (1995) Laboratory and pilot-scale sorption and biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls from ground water International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation Volume 35, Issues 1-3, Pages 287-300 157. Kastanek F, Kastanek P, Demnerova K, et al. (2004) Decontamination of wastewater contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Volume: 50 Issue: 2 Pages: 131-138 Published: 2004 158. F Kaštánek and P Kaštánek (2005) Combined decontamination processes for wastes containing PCBs Journal of Hazardous Materials Volume 117, Issues 2-3, 31 January, Pages 185-205 159. F Kastaneka, Ywette Maleterovaa, Petr Kastanekb, Jiri Rottc, Vladimir Jiricnya and Kvetoslava Jiratovaa (2007) Complex treatment of wastewater and groundwater contaminated by halogenated organic compounds. Desalination Volume 211, Issues 1-3, 10 June 2007, Pages 261-271 160. Kawasaki SI, Oe T, Anjoh N, et al Practical supercritical water reactor for destruction of high concentration polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dioxin waste streams . PROCESS SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Volume: 84 Issue: B4 Special Issue: Sp. Iss. SI Pages: 317-324 Published: JUL 2006 161. Keum, Y.S. and Li, Q.X., (2004) Fungal Laccase-Catalyzed Degradation of Hydroxy Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Chemosphere, vol. 56, pp. 23–30. 162. Kim, S., Picardal, F. Microbial Growth on Dichlorobiphenyls Chlorinated on Both Rings as a Sole Carbon and Energy Source. (2001). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 1953-1955 HS 163. Kim YH (2004) Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated biphenyls by palladized zero-valent metals JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH PART A-TOXIC/HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 39 : 1177 DOI 10.1081/ESE-120030302 164. King, G. M. 1988. Dehalogenation in marine sediments containing natural sources of halophenols. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:3079–3085. 165. Klasson, K.T., Barton, J.W., Evans, B.S. and Reeves, M.E. (1996) Reductive microbial dechlorination of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyls in soil using a sediment-free inoculum. Biotechnol. Prog. 12, 310^315. 166. H.P.E. Kohler, D. Kohler-Staub and D.D. Focht (1988) Co-metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls: enhanced transformation of Aroclor 1254 by growing bacterial cells, Appl Environ Microbiol 54, pp. 1940–1945 167. Komancova, M., Jurcova, I., Kochankova, L., and Burkhard, J., Metabolic (2003) Pathways of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Degradation by Pseudomonas sp. 2, Chemosphere, vol. 50, pp. 537–543. 168. Kubatova, A., Matucha M, Erbanova P, Novotny C Investigation into PCB biodegradation using uniformly 14C-labelled dichlorobiphenyl. Isotopes in environment Health studies 34, 325-334. 169. Kubatova, A., Erbanova, P., Eichlerova, I., Homolka, L., Nerud, F., and Sasek, V. (2001) PCB Congener Selective Biodegradation by the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus in Contaminated Soil, Chemosphere, vol. 43, pp. 207–215. 170. Kuipers, B., Cullen, W.R., and Mohn, W.W. (2003) Reductive Dechlorination of Weathered Aroclor 1260 during Anaerobic Biotreatment of Arctic Soils, Can. J. Microbiol., vol. 49, pp. 9–14. 171. CY. Kuo and SL. Lo (1999) Oxidation of aqueous chlorobiphenyls with photo-fenton process Chemosphere, Vol. 38, No. 9, pp. 2041-2051, 172. O-Seob Kwon, Young-Jin Kim, Kyung-Je Cho, Jin Ae Lee, Young Eui Kim, In Young Hwang, and Jae Hyun Kwon Influence of Transition-Metal Cofactors on the Reductive Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) The Journal of Microbiology, September 2003, p.189-195 173. Lajoie CA, Layton AC, Sayler GS (1994) Cometabolic oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil with a surfactant-based field application vector. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:2826–2833 174. Lajoie CA, Layton AC, Easter JP, Menn FM, Sayler GS (1997) Degradation of nonionic surfactants and polychlorinated biphenyls by recombinant field application vectors. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 19:252–262 175. Lake, J.L., Pruell, R.J. and Osterman, F.A. (1992) An examination of dechlorination process and pathways in new Bedford Harbor sediments. Mar. Environ. Res. 33, 31^47. 176. Layton AC, Lajoie CA, Easter JP, Jernigan R, Sanseverino J, Sayler GS. 1994. Molecular diagnostics and chemical analysis for assassing biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in contaminated soils. J Ind Microbiol 13:392–401. 177. Leah A. Cutter, Joy E. M. Watts, Kevin R. Sowers and Harold D. May Identification of a microorganism that links its growth to the reductive dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-chlorobiphenyl Environmental Microbiology Volume 3 Issue 11 Page 699-709, November 2001 178. Lee S-H, Park KC, Mahiko T, Sekizawa K, Izumizaki Y, Tomiyasu H Supercritical water oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls based on the redox reactions promoted by nitrate and nitrite salts Source: JOURNAL OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS Volume: 39 Issue: 1 Pages: 54-62 Published: NOV 2006 179. Leigh MB, Prouzova P, Mackova M, Macek T, Nagle DP, Fletcher JS (2006) Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria associated with trees in a PCB-contaminated site. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(4):2331–2342 180. Lowry GV (2004) Congener-specific dechlorination of dissolved PCBs by microscale and nanoscale zerovalent iron in a water/methanol solution ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 38 : 5208 DOI 10.1021/es049835q 181. AJ Macedo, TR Neu, U Kuhlicke, WR Abraham Adaptation of microbial communities in soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls, leading to the transformation of more highly chlorinated congeners in biofilm communities- Biofilms, 2007 182. Macková M, Macek T, Burkhard J, O ená ková J, Demnerová K, Pazlarová J. Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by plant cells. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 1997;39:317–25 183. Macková M, Macek T, Ku erová P, Burkhard J, T íska J, Demnerová K. Plant tissue cultures in model studies of transformation of polychlorinated biphenyls. Chem Papers 1998;52:599–600. 184. Macková M, Macek T, Ku erová P, Burkhard J, Pazlarová J, Demnerová K. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by hairy root culture of Solanum nigrum. Biotechnol Let 1997;19:787–90. 185. Mackova, M., Barriault, D., Francova, K., Sylvestre, M., Moder, M., Vrchotova, B., Lovecka, P., Najmanova, J., Demnerova, K., Novakova, M., Rezek, J., and Macek, T., (2006) Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Phytoremediation and Rhizoremediation, Mackova M. et al., Eds., Springer 186. M Macková, B Vrchotová, K Francová, M Sylvestre, M Tomaniova, P Lovecka, K Demnerova, T Macek Biotransformation of PCBs by plants and bacteria - consequences of plant-microbe interactions European Journal of Soil Biology 43 (2007) 233-241 187. Maillard C., Guillard C. and Pichat P. (1992) Comparative effects of the TiO2-UV, H2O2-UV, H2O2± Fe2+ systems on the disappearance rate of benzamide and 4-hydroxybenzamide in water. Chemosphere 24, 1085±1094. 188. Maltseva OV, Tsoi TV, Quensen JF, et al. Degradation of anaerobic reductive dechlorination products of Aroclor 1242 by four aerobic bacteria BIODEGRADATION Volume: 10 Issue: 5 Pages: 363-371 Published: 1999 189. Manzano MA, Perales JA, Sales D, et al. Enhancement of aerobic microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl in soil microcosms ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY Volume: 22 Issue: 4 Pages: 699-705 Published: APR 2003 190. Martin S. T., Lee A. T. and Ho€mann M. R. (1995) Chemical mechanism of inorganic oxidants in the TiO2/UV process: increased rates of degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29, 2567±2573. 191. P Martínez, L Agulló, M Hernández, M Seeger Chlorobenzoate inhibits growth and induces stress proteins in the PCB-degrading bacterium Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 - Archives of Microbiology, Volume 188, Number 3 / September, 2007 192. Masai E, Yamada A, Healy JM, Hatta T, Kimbara K, Fukuda M, Yano K (1995) Characterization of biphenyl catabolic genes of grampositive polychlorinated biphenyl degrader Rhodococcus sp. Strain RHA1. Appl Environ Microbiol 61(6):2079–2085 193. E.R. Master, V.V. Lai, B. Kuipers, W.R. Cullen and W. Mohn, (2002) Sequential anaerobic–aerobic treatment of soil contaminated with weathered Aroclor 1260, Environ Sci Technol 36 , pp. 100–103. 194. Matheson, L. J.; Tratnyek, P. G. (1994) Environ. Sci. Technol., 28 (12), 2045-2053. 195. Matsunaga K, Yamabe S, Mori (1997) Photodegradation of polychlorobiphenyls by titanium dioxide/ferric ion/hydrogen peroxide/UV light system JAPANESE JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH Volume: 43 Issue: 3 Pages: 174-181 Published: Jun 1997 196. A Matsunaga and AYasuhara (2005) Dechlorination of PCBs by electrochemical reduction with aromatic radical anion as mediator. Chemosphere Volume 58, Issue 7, February, Pages 897-904 197. Matthes W; Kahr G (2000) Sorption of organic compounds by A1 and Zr-hydroxy-intercalated and pillared bentonite ; Clays and clay minerals vol. 48, no6, pp. 593-602 (1 p.1/4) 198. Matthew O. Ilori1 , Gary K. Robinson2 and Sunday A. Adebusoye1 Aerobic mineralization of 4,4-dichlorobiphenyl and 4-chlorobenzoic acid by a novel natural bacterial strain that grows poorly on benzoate and biphenyl World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology DOI 10.1007/s11274-007-9597-y Nov 2007 199. May, H. D., Miller, G. S., Kjellerup, B. V., Sowers, K. R. Dehalorespiration with Polychlorinated Biphenyls by an Anaerobic Ultramicrobacterium. (2008). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 2089-2094 200. Mazur and Weinberg, 1987 Mazur, D.J., Weinberg, N.L., (1987) Methods for electrochemical reduction of halogenated organic compounds. USP4702804. 201. McGeever C. E. (1983) Effect of hydrogen peroxide on photocatalysis of perchloroethylene in aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide, Master's thesis, University of California at Davis. 202. Mendoza A, Caballero P, Villarreal JA, et al. (2006) Performance of a semi-industrial scale gasification process for the destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls Source: JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION Volume: 56 Issue: 11 Pages: 1599-1606 203. Mikszewski Alex (2004) Emerging Technologies for the In Situ Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Soils and Sediments: Bioremediation and Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron, National Network for Environmental Management Studies Fellow 204. Miller G, Sowers KR, Milliken CE & May HD (2005) Isolation and characterization of a PCB dechlorinating bacterium. Poster presented at the 105th GeneralMeeting of the American Society for Microbiology, June 5–9, Atlanta, GA. 205. Mills A., Davies R. H. and Worsley D. (1993) Water purification by semiconductor photocatalysis. Chem. Soc. Rev. 22, 417±425. 206. Mitoma Y, Uda T, Egashira N, et al. (2004) Approach to highly efficient dechlorination of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs using metallic calcium in ethanol under atmospheric pressure at room temperature ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Volume: 38 Issue: 4 Pages: 1216-1220 Published: FEB 15 2004 207. Mitoma Y, Tasaka N, Takase M, et al. (2006) Calcium-promoted catalytic degradation of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs under a mild wet process ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Volume: 40 Issue: 6 Pages: 1849-1854 Published: MAR 15 2006 208. Modell, M. (1985) Processing methods for the oxidation of organics in supercritical water. U.S. Patent 4,543,190. 209. Modell, M. (1989) Supercritical Water Oxidation. In The Standard Handbook of Hazardous Site Treatment and Disposal; Freeman, H. M., Ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York 210. Mohn WW and JM Tiedje. (1992) Microbial reductive dehalogenation. Microbiol. Rev., 56, 482-507. 211. Mondello, F.J. (1989) Cloning and expression in E. coli of Pseudomonas strain LB400 genes encoding polychlorinated biphenyl degradation. J. Bacteriol. 171, 1725-1732. 212. Mondello, F.J. (2002) Microbial Bioremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Applicability to the Former GE Canada Transformer Manufacturing Facility Located in Guelph, Ontario. General Electric Company. GE Global Research Technical Information Series, Report no. 2002GRC022. 213. Montgomery L., N. Assaf-Anid, L. Nies, P.J. Anid and T.M. Vogel, (1994) Anaerobic biodegradation of chlorinated organic compounds. In: G.R. Chaudry, Editor, Biological degradation and bioremediation of toxic chemicals, Chapman and Hall, New York 214. Mousa, M.A., Ganey, P.E., Quensen III, J.F., Madhukar, B.V., Chou, K., Giesy, J.P., Fischer, L.J. and Boyd, S.A. (1998) Altered biologic activities of commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures after microbial reductive dechlorination. Environ. Health Perspect. 106 (Suppl. 6), 1409-1418. 215. Mulligan, C.N., Yong, R.N., and Gibbs, B.F., (2001) Surfactant- Enhanced Remediation of Contaminated Soil: a Review, Eng. Geology, vol. 60, pp. 371–380. 216. Nadim, L., Schocken, M.J., Higson, F.J., Gibson, D.T., Bedard, D.L., Bopp, L.H. and F.J. Mondello. (1987) Bacterial oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls. In, Proceedings of the 13th Annual Research Symposium on Land Disposal, Remedial Action, Incineration, and Treatment of Hazardous Waste, p. 395-402. EPA/600/9-87/015. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio. 217. G. Nakhla, J. Kochany, A. Lugowski (2002) Evaluation of PCBs biodegradaibility in sludges by various microbial cultures, Environ. Prog. 21 (2) 85–93. 218. Naseby DC, Lynch JM (1999) Effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens on ecological functions in the pea rhizosphere are dependent on pH. Microbiol Ecol 37:248–256 219. Natarajan, M.R., W.M. Wu, J. Nye, and H. Wang. (1996) “Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners by an Anaerobic Microbial Consortium.” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 46(5-6):673-677. 220. Natarajan, M.R., Nye, L., Wu, W.-M., Wang, H. and Jain, M.K. (1997) Reductive dechlorination of PCB-contaminated Raison River sediments by anaerobic microbial granules. Biotech. Bioeng. 55, 182-190. 221. Natarajan, M.R., Wu, W.M., Wang, H., Bhatnagar, L., and Jain, M.K. (1998) Dechlorination of Spiket PCBs in Lake Sediment by Anaerobic Microbial Granules, Water. Res., vol. 32, pp. 3013–3020. 222. Nollet H, Roels M, Lutgen P, Van der Meeren P, VerstraeteW. Removal of PCBs from wastewater using fly ash. Chemosphere 2003; 53:655–65. 223. Nollet, H., Van de Putte, I., Raskin, L., and Verstraete, W. (2005) Carbon/Electron Source Dependence of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Dechlorination Pathways for Anaerobic Granules, Chemosphere, vol. 58, pp. 299–310. 224. Oe, T. (1998) Waste Water Treatment by Supercritical Water Oxidation. Kami Pa Gikyoshy, 52 (8), 1056. 225. Řfjord, G.D., Puhakka, J.A. and Ferguson, J.F. (1994) Reductive dechlorination of Aroclor 1254 by marine sediment cultures. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 2286-2294. 226. Ollis D.F., Pelizzetti E., Serpone N. (1989) in "Photocatalysis Fundamentals and Applications", Serpone N. and Pelizzetti E., Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 227. Pakdeesusuk, U.; Lee, C. M.; Coates, J. T.; Freedman, D. L. Assessment of natural attenuation via in situ reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments of the Twelve Mile Creek Arm of Lake Hartwell, SC. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005, 39, 945-952. 228. D. Patureau & E. Trably Impact of anaerobic and aerobic processes on PolyChloro Biphenyl removal in contaminated sewage sludge Biodegradation (2006) 17: 9–17 229. Petersen et al., 1990 D. Petersen et al. (1990) Elektrochemische enthalogenierung von chlorierten benzolen und biphenylen in methanol, Z. Naturforsch. 45b, pp. 1105–1107. 230. Pelizzetti E., Carlin V., Minero C. and GraČ tzel M. (1990) Enhancement of the rate of photocatalytic degradation on TiO2 of 2-chlorophenol, 2,7-dichlorodibenzodioxin and atrazine by inorganic oxidizing species. N. J. Chem. 15, 351±359. 231. Pelizzetti E., Minero C. and Maurino V. (1990) The role of colloidal particles in the photodegradation of organic compounds of environmental concern in aquatic systems. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 32, 271±316. 232. I Petric, D Hrsak, S Fingler, E Voncina, H Enrichment and Characterization of PCB-Degrading Bacteria as Potential Seed Cultures for bioremediation of contaminated soil - Food Technology and Biotechnology (1330-9862) 45 (2007), 1; 11-20 233. Pieper, D.H. (2005) Aerobic Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., vol. 67, pp. 170–191. 234. Pignatello, J.J., Chapa, G., 1994. Degradation of PCBs by ferric ion, hydrogen peroxide and UV light. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 13, 423. 235. Ponder, S. M.; Darab, J. G.; Mallouk, T. E. (2000) Environ. Sci. Technol., 34 (12), 2564-2569. 236. Pulliam Holoman, T. R., M. A. Elberson, L. A. Cutter, H. D. May, and K. R. Sowers. 1998. Characterization of a defined 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl-ortho- dechlorinating microbial community by comparative sequence analysis of genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:3359–3367. 237. Quensen, J.F., Tiedje, J.M., and S.A. Boyd. (1988) Reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls by anaerobic microorganisms from sediments. Science, 242, 752-754. 238. J.F. Quensen III, S.A. Boyd and J.M. Tiedje (1990) Declorination of four commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclors) by anaerobic microorganisms from sediments, Appl Environ Microbiol 56, pp. 2360–2369. 239. Quensen, J.F., III, Tiedje, J.M., Boyd, S.A., Enke, C., Lopshire, R., Giesy, J.P., Mora, M.A., Crawford, R. and Tillitt, D. (1992) Evaluation of the suitability of reductive dechlorination for the bioremediation of PCB-contaminated soils and sediments. In: International Symposium on Soil Decontamination using Biological Processes, pp. 91-100. Karlsruhe (December 1992), Dechema, Frankfurt am Main. 240. Quensen III, J.F., Mousa, M.A., Boyd, S.A., Sanderson, J.T., Forese, K.L. and Giesy, J.P. (1998) Reduction of Ah receptor mediated activity of PCB mixtures due to anaerobic microbial dechlorination. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17, 806-813. 241a. QINGZHONG WU, KEVIN R. SOWERS, HAROLD D. MAY Microbial Reductive Dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 in Anaerobic Slurries of Estuarine Sediments APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 0099-2240/98/$04.0010 Mar. 1998, p. 1052–1058 241b. Railtrack plc (2001) Newton heath and Longsight lmd, additionnal investigations ref C1726 242. Rein A & M M. Fernqvist & Philipp Mayer & Stefan Trapp & Martin Bittens & Ulrich Gosewinkel Karlson. Degradation of PCB congeners by bacterial strains Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2007) 77:469–481 243. Rhee, G.-Y., Sokol, R.C., Bethoney, C.M. and Bush, B. (1993) A long-term study of anaerobic dechlorination of PCB congeners by sediment microorganisms: Pathways and mass balance. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 12 (10), 1829-1834. 244. Rhee Y. (1999) Microbial community dynamics of PCB dechlorination in sediments. Progress Report, Department of Health, Wadsworth Center, New York 245. Robinson GK, Lenn MJ. 1994. The bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): problems and perspectives. Biotechnol Gen Eng Rev 12:139–188. 246. Rodrigues, J.L.M., Kachel, C.A., Aiello, M.R., Quensen III, J.F., Maltseva, O.V., Tsoi, T.V., and Tiedje, J.M. (2006) Degradation of Aroclor 1242 Dechlorination Products in Sediments by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400(Ohb) and Rhodococcus sp. Strain RHA1(Fcb), Appl. Environ. Microbiol., vol. 72, pp. 2476–2482. 247. Rogers, Julia D. (1999) Sequential anaerobic–anaerobic treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil microcosms. National Center for Environmental Research, USEPA 248. Ross, G., The Public Health Implications of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in the Environment, Rev. Ecotox. Environ. Safety, 2004, vol. 59, pp. 275–291. 249. Rouse JD, Sabatini DA, Suflita JM, Harwell JH (1994) Influence of surfactant on microbial degradation of organic compounds. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 24:325–370 250. Rysavy, J.P., Yan, T., and Novak, P.J., (2005) Enrichment of Anaerobic Polychlorinated Biphenyl Dechlorinators from Sediment with Iron as a Hydrogen Source, Water Res., vol. 39, pp. 569–578. 251. Ryslava, E., Krejcik, Z., Macek, T., Novakova, H., Denmerova, K., and Mackova, M. (2003) Study of PCB Degradation in Real Contaminated Soil, Fres. Environ. Bull, vol. 12, pp. 296–301. 252. Sasek V., Volfova O., Erbanova P., Vyas B. R. M., Matucha M. (1993) Degradation of PCBs by white rot fungi, methylotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing yeasts and bacteria. Biotechnol. Lett. 15:521–526. 253. C. Sato, S. Leung, H. Bell, W. Burkett, R. Watts, (1993) Decomposition of perchloroethylene and polychlorinated biphenyls with Fenton reagent, ACS Symp. Ser. 518 343–356. 254. Savage, P. E.; Gopalan, S.; Mizan, T. I.; Martino, C. J.; Brock, E. E. (1995) Reactions at Supercritical Conditions: Applications and Fundamentals. AIChE J., 41, 1723. 255. Savage, P. E. (1999) Organic Chemical Reactions in Supercritical Water. Chem. Rev., 99, 603 256. Schmelling DC, Poster DL, Chaychian M, Neta P, Silverman J, Al-Sheikhly M Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls induced by ionizing radiation in aqueous micellar solutions. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Volume: 32 Issue: 2 Pages: 270-275 Published: JAN 15 1998 257. Schmieder, H.; Abeln, J. (1999) Supercritical water oxidation. State of the art. Chem. Eng. Technol., 22 (11), 903. 258. Schrick, B.; Blough, J. L.; Jones, D.; Mallouk, T. E. (2002) Chem. Mater. 14, 5140-5147 259. J. F. Schweitzer, G. S. Born, J. E. Etzel and W. V. Kessler (1987) Evaluation of gamma radiation for degradation of a polychlorinated biphenyl in solution and on activated carbon Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. Volume 118, Number 5 / August, 1987 323-329 260. Seto M, Kimbara K, Shimura M, Hatta T, Fukuda M, Yano K (1995) A Novel Transformation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Rhodococcus sp. Strain RHA1. Appl Environ Microbiol 61(12): 4510–4513 261. Shanahan P, O’Sullivan DJ, Simpson P, Glennon JD, O’Gara F (1992) Isolation of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol from a fluorescent pseudomonad and investigation of physiological parameters influencing its production. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:353–358 262. M.J.R. Shannon, R. Rothmel, C.D. Chunn and R. Unterman, (1994) Bioremediation of chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston. 263. Shimura, M., Hayakawa, T., Kyotani, T., Ushiogi, T., and Kimbara, K. (2003) Bioremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Contaminated Sludge and Ballast, Proc. Institution of Mech. Eng. Part F-J. Rail and Rapid Transit, vol. 217, pp. 285–290. 264. Sierra, I., Valera, J.L., Marina, M.L., and Laborda, F. (2003) Study of the Biodegradation Process of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Liquid Medium and Soil by a New Isolated Aerobic Bacterium (Janibacter sp.), Chemosphere, vol. 53, pp. 609–618. 265. Simons M, Vanderbij AJ, Brand I, de Weger LA, Wijffelman CA, Lugtenberg BJJ (1996) Gnotobiotic system for studying rhizosphere colonization by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas bacteria. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 9:600–607 266. Simcik, M.E., Basu, I., Sweet, C.W. and Hites, R.A. (1999) Temperature dependence and temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the Great Lakes atmosphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33, 1991^1995. 267. Singer AC, Gilbert ES, Luepromchai E, Crowley DE (2000) Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil using carvone and surfactant-grown bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 54:838–843 268. Singer, D Smith, WA Jury, K Hathuc, DE Crowley Impact of the plant rhizosphere and augmentation on remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil AC - Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2003 Article: pp. 1998–2004 269. KE Smith, AP Schwab, MK Banks Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)-Contaminated Sediment A Greenhouse Feasibility Study - Journal of Environmental Quality, 2007 270. Sokol, R.C., Kwon, O.-S., Bethoney, C.M. and Rhee, G.-Y. (1994) reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in St. Lawrence River sediments and variation in Dechlorination characteristics. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 2054-2064. 271. Sokol, R.C., Bethoney, C.M. and Rhee, G.-Y. (1998) Reductive dechlorination of preexisting sediment polychlorinated biphenyls with long-term laboratory incubation. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17, 982-987. 272. Sotelo, J.L., Ovejero, G., Delgado, J.A., Martinez, I., (2002) Comparison of adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of four chlorinated organics from water onto GAC. Water Res. 36, 599–608. 273. Stefan M. I., Hoy A. R. and Bolton J. R. (1996) Kinetics and mechanism of the degradation and mineralization of acetone in dilute aqueous solution sensitized by the UV photolysis of hydrogen peroxide. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30, 2382±2390. 274. H. Sugimoto, S. Matsumoto and D.T. Sawyer, (1988) Degradation and dehalogenation of polychlorobiphenyls and halogenated aromatic molecules by superoxide ion and electrolytic reduction, Environ. Sci. Technol. 22, pp. 1182–1186. 275. Sylvestre, M., and M. Sondossi. 1994. Selection of enhanced polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading bacterial strains for bioremediation: consideration of branching pathways, p. 47–73. In G. R. Chaudry (ed.), Biological degradation and bioremediation of toxic chemicals. Discorides Press, Portland, Oreg. 276. Sylvestre, M., (1995) Biphenyl/Chlorobiphenyls Catabolic Pathway of Comamonas testosteroni B-356: Prospect for Use in Bioremediation, Int. Biodeter. Biodegr., pp. 189–211. 277. Tanaka K., Hisanaga T. and Harada K. (1989) E�cient photocatalytic degradation of chloral hydrate in aqueous semiconductor suspensions. J. Photochem. Photobiol A: Chem. 48, 155±159. 278. Tanaka K., Hisanaga T. and Harada K. (1989) Photocatalytic degradation of organohalide compounds in semiconductor suspensions with added hydrogen per- oxide. N. J. Chem. 13, 5±7. 279. Tanaka K., Hisanaga T. and Harada K. (1990) Photocatalytic degradation of organochlorine compounds in suspended TiO2. J. Photochem. Photobiol A: Chem. 54, 113±118. 280. Tartakovsky, B., Hawari, J. and Guiot, S.R., 2000. Enhanced dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 in an anaerobic continuous bioreactor. Water Res. 34, pp. 85–92 281. Tartakovsky, B., Michote, A., Cadieux, J.-A.C., Lau, P.C.K., Hawari, J., and Guiot, S.R., (2001) Degradation of Aroclor 1242 in a Single-Stage Coupled Anaerobic/Aerobic Bioreactor, Water Res., vol. 35, pp. 4323–4330. 282. Tester, J. W.; Holgate, H. R.; Armellini, F. J.; Webley, P. A.; Killilea, W. R.; Hong, G. T.; Barner, H. E. (1993) Supercritical water oxidation technology: process development and fundamental research. In ACS Symposium Series; Tedder, D. W., Pohland, F. G., Eds.; American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C; Vol. 518, p 35. 283. Tester, J. W.; Cline, J. A. (1999) Hydrolysis and oxidation in subcritical and supercritical water: Connecting process engineering science to molecular interactions. Corrosion (Houston), 55 (11), 1088. 284. Thomas F. Connors, James F. Rusling (1984) Ultrasonically-assisted electrocatalytic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls Chemosphere Volume 13, Issue 3, 1984, Pages 415-420 285. Tiedje JM, Quensen JF III, Chee-Sanford J, Schimel JP, Boyd SA (1993) Microbial reductive dechlorination of PCBs. Biodegradation 4:231–240 286. Tharakan, J., Tomlinson, D., Addagada, A., and Shafagati, A. (2006) Biotransformation of PCBs in Contaminated Sludge: Potential for Novel Biological Technologies, Eng. Life Sci., vol. 6, pp. 43–50. 287. Thomas, D. R., K. S. Carswell, and G. Georgiou. (1992) Mineralization of biphenyl and PCBs by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 40:1395–1402. 288. Di Toro, S., Zanaroli, G., and Fava, F. (2006) Intensification of the Aerobic Bioremediation of an Actual Site Soil Historically Contaminated by Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Through Bioaugmentation with a Non Acclimated, Complex Source of Microorganisms, Microbial. Cell. Factories, vol. 6, pp. 1–10. 289. Trapp S, Karlson U (2001) Aspects of phytoremediation of organic pollutants. J Soils Sed 1:37–43 290. R. Unterman, D.L. Bedard, M.J. Brennan, L.H. Bopp, F.J. Mondello and R.E. Brooks et al. (1988) Biological approaches for PCB degradation, Reducing risk from environmental chemicals through biotechnology, Plenum Press, New York. 291. Unterman R. (1996) A history of PCB biodegradation. In Bioremediation principles and applications, eds R. L. Crawford and D. L. Crawford, pp. 209–253. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 292. Van Dyke MI, Couture P, Brauer M, Lee H, Trevors JT (1993) Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 rhamnolipid biosurfactants: structural characterization and their use in removing hydrophobic compounds from soil. Can. J. Microbiol. 39: 1071–1078. 293. H.M. Van Dort, L.A. Smullen, R.I. May and D.L. Bedard (1997) Priming microbial meta-dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls that have persisted in Housatonic River sediments for decades, Environ Sci Technol 31, pp. 3300–3307. 294. Vansant EF (1999) New composite adsorbents for the removal of pollutants from waste waters ADSORPTION AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, VOL II: APPLICATIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Volume: 120 Pages: 381-396 Part: Part B 295. GK Vasilyeva, ER Strijakova (2007) Bioremediation of soils and sediments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls, Microbiology 296. Villacieros M, Power B, Sanchez-Contreras M, Lloret J, Oruezabal RI, Martin M, Fernandez-Pinas F, Bonilla I, Whelan C, Dowling DN, Rivilla R (2003) Colonization behaviour of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Sinorhizobium meliloti in the alfalfa (Medicago sativa) rhizosphere. Plant Soil 251:47–54 297. Vogan, J. L.; Focht, R. M.; Clark, D. K.; Graham, S. L. (1999) J. Hazard. Mater., 68 (1), 97-108. 298. Volkering F, Breure AM, Rulkens WH (1998) Microbiological aspects of surfactant use for biological soil remediation. Biodegradation 8:401–417 299. Vollmuth S., Niessner R (1994)Degradation of PCDD, PCDF, PAH, PCB and chlorinated phenols during the destruction treatment of landfill seepage water in laboratory model reactor (UV, Ozone, and UV/ozone). Chemosphere 30 (12) 2317-2331 Jun 1994 300. Vyas, B. R. M., V. Sasek, M. Matucha, and M. Bubner (1994) Degradation of 3,39,4,49-tetrachlorobiphenyl by selected white rot fungi. Chemosphere 28: 1127–1134. 301. Wang, C.; Zhang, W. (1997) Environ. Sci. Technol., 31 (7), 2154-2156. 302. Wang JM, Marlowe EM, Miller-Maier RM, Brusseau ML (1998) Cyclodextrin-enhanced biodegradation of phenanthrene. Environ Sci Technol 32:1907–1912 303. Wang, Y., Hong, C.-S., (1999) Effect of hydrogen peroxide, periodate and persulfate on photocatalysis of 2-chlorobiphenyl in aqueous TiO2 suspensions.W ater Res.33 (9), 2031. 304. Wang, Y., Hong, C.-S., (2000) TiO2 mediated photomineralization of 2-chlorobiphenyl: the role of O2.Water Res. 34 (10), 2791. 305. Watts, J. E. M., Q. Wu, S. B. Schreier, H. D. May, and K. R. Sowers. 2001. Comparative analyses of PCB dechlorinating communities in enrichment cultures using three different molecular screening techniques. Environ. Microbiol. 2:710–719. 306. Watts, J. E. M., Fagervold, S. K., May, H. D., Sowers, K. R. (2005) A PCR-based specific assay reveals a population of bacteria within the Chloroflexi associated with the reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls Microbiology 151: 2039-2046 307. Wei CH (Wei Chaohai), Yan B (Yan Bo), Hu CS (Hu Chengsheng) PCBs treatment by sub-supercritical water catalytic oxidation, thermolysis and reductionPROGRESS IN CHEMISTRY Volume: 19 Issue: 9 Pages: 1275-1281 Published: SEP 2007 308. West, O. R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W. L.; Korte, N. E.; Fernando, Q.; Clausen, J. L. (1996) Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Using Palladized Iron; ORNL/TM-13217; Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Oak Ridge, TN; 37831. 309. Wiegel, J. and Wu, Q.Z. (2000) Microbial Reductive Dehalogenation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, FEMS Microbiol. Letts., vol. 32, pp. 1–15. 310. Wittich, R.-M., Wolff, P. Growth of the genetically engineered strain Cupriavidus necator RW112 with chlorobenzoates and technical chlorobiphenyls. (2007). Microbiology 153: 186-195 311. Wilken A, Bock C, Bokern M, Harms H. Metabolism of different PCB congeners in plant cell cultures. Environ Toxicol Chem 1995;14:2017–22. 312. Williams, W.A. (1994) Microbial reductive dechlorination of trichlorobiphenyls in anaerobic sediment slurries. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 630^635. 313. Williams, W.A. (1997) Stimulation and enrichment of two microbial polychlorinated biphenyl reductive dechlorination activities. Chemosphere 34, 665^669. 314. K. H. Wong a; P. K. Wong (2006) Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls by UV-Catalyzed Photolysis Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, Volume 12, Issue 2 April 2006 , pages 259 - 269 315. Wu, Q., Bedard, D.L. and Wiegel, J. (1996) Inffuence of incubation temperature on the microbial reductive dechlorination of 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl in two freshwater sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 4174-4179. 316. Wu, Q., Bedard, D.L. and Wiegel, J. (1997) Effect of incubation temperature on the route of microbial reductive dechlorination of 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated and PCB-free freshwater sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 2836-2843. 317. Wu, Q., Sowers, K.R. and May, H.D. (1998) Microbial reductive dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 in anaerobic slurries of estuarine sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 1052-1058. 318. Wu, Q., Sowers, K. R., May, H. D. (2000). Establishment of a Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Dechlorinating Microbial Consortium, Specific for Doubly Flanked Chlorines, in a Defined, Sediment-Free Medium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 49-53 319. Wu Q, Watts JEM, Sowers KR & May HD (2002) Identification of a Bacterium That Specifically Catalyzes the Reductive Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls with Doubly Flanked Chlorines - Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2002 February; 68(2): 807–812 320. Yadav, J. S., J. F. Quensen III, J. M. Tiedje, and C. A. Reddy. (1995). Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclors 1242, 1254, and 1260) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium as evidenced by congener-specific analysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:2560–2565. 321. Yak, H. K.; Wenclawiak, B. W.; Cheng, I. F.; Doyle, J. G.; Wai, C. M. (1999) Environ. Sci. Technol., 33 (8), 1307-1310. 322. Yak, H. K.; Lang, Q.; Wai, C. M. (2000) Environ. Sci. Technol., 34 (13), 2792-2798. 323. Yakov Yasman, Valery Bulatov, Vladimir V. Gridin, Sabina Agur, Noah Galil, Robert Armon, (2004) A new sono-electrochemical method for enhanced detoxification of hydrophilic chloroorganic pollutants in water. Israel Schechter Ultrasonics sonochemistry 11 (6): 365-372 SEP 2004 Pages 365-372 324. Tao Yan, Timothy M. LaPara and Paige J. Novak The effect of varying levels of sodium bicarbonate on polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures Environmental Microbiology Volume 8 Issue 7 Page 1288-1298, July 2006 325. Tao Yan, Timothy M. LaPara, and Paige J. Novak The Impact of Sediment Characteristics on PCB-dechlorinating Cultures: Implications for Bioaugmentation. Bioremediat J. 2006 ; 10(4): 143–151. 326. Tao Yan, Timothy M. LaPara & Paige J. Novak The reductive dechlorination of 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl in three different sediment cultures:evidencefor the involvement of phylogenetically similar Dehalococcoides -like bacterial populations FEMS Microbiology Ecology 55, 2006 248–261 327. Yang B, Yu G, Zhang ZL Study on the application of electrochemical methods to the destruction of chlorinated aromatic pollutants PROGRESS IN CHEMISTRY Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 87-92 Published: JAN 2006 328. Yao Y, Kakimoto K, Ogawa HI, et al. (1997) Photodechlorination pathways of non-ortho substituted PCBs by ultraviolet irradiation in alkaline 2-propanol Source: BULLETIN OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY Volume: 59 Issue: 2 Pages: 238-245 Published: AUG 1997 329. Yao Y, Kakimoto K, Ogawa HI, et al. (1997) Reductive dechlorination of non-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls by ultraviolet irradiation in alkaline 2-propanol Source: CHEMOSPHERE Volume: 35 Issue: 12 Pages: 2891-2897 Published: DEC 1997 330. Yao Y, Kakimoto K, Ogawa HI, et al. (2000) Further study on the photochemistry of non-ortho substituted PCBs by UV irradiation in alkaline 2-propanol CHEMOSPHERE Volume: 40 Issue: 9-11 Pages: 951-956 Published: MAY-JUN 2000 331. Ye, D., Quensen III, J.F., Tiedje, J.M. and Boyd, S.A. (1995) Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 2166-2171. 332. Ye, D., Quensen III, J.F., Tiedje, J.M. and Boyd, S.A. (1999) 2- Bromoethano-sulfonate, sulfate, molybdate, and ethansulfonate inhibit anaerobic dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by pasteurized microorganisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 327^329. 333. Yee DC, Maynard JA, Wood TK (1998) Rhizoremediation of trichloroethylene by a recombinant, root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain expressing toluene ortho-monooxygenase constitutively. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:112–118 334. Yun-Hwei Shen (2002) Removal of phenol from water by adsorption–flocculation using organobentonite Water Research Volume 36, Issue 5, March 2002, Pages 1107-1114 335. Zeddel, A., A. Majcherczyk, and A. Huttermann. 1993. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor in a solid state system. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 40:225–266. 336.Zeeb, B.A., Amphlet, J.S., Rutter, A., and Reimer, K.J. (2006) Potential for Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl-(PCB)-Contaminated Soil, Int. J. Phytoremedia, vol. 8, pp. 199–221. 337. S Zhang, JF Rusling (1993) Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls by electrochemical catalysis in a bicontinuous microemulsion - Environmental Science & Technology, 338. P. Zhang, R. Scrudato, J. Pagano and R. Roberts, (1993) Photodecomposition of PCBs in aqueous systems using titanium dioxide as catalyst, Chemo.sphere 26(6), 1213-1223. 339. S Zhang, JF Rusling (1995) Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Soils and Clay by Electrolysis in a Bicontinuous Microemulsion - Environmental Science & Technology, 340. Zhang GM, Hua I Cavitation chemistry of polychlorinated biphenyls: Decomposition mechanisms and rates ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Volume: 34 Issue: 8 Pages: 1529-1534 Published: APR 15 2000 341. Zhang WX (2003) Nanoscale iron particles for environmental remediation: An overview JOURNAL OF NANOPARTICLE RESEARCH 5 : 323 342. Zwiernik, Matthew J., John F. Quensen III, and Stephen A. Boyd. (1998) “FeSO4 Amendments Stimulate Extensive Anaerobic PCB Dechlorination.” Environmental Science and Technology 32(21):3360-3365.